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IT be Xibrart) 

of tbe 

1Hniver0it\> of Toronto 



No. i. 

From CL Fifteenth, Century 

irt the British Museusrv, Sloane MS. 2OO2 

De Arte Phisicali et de Cirurgia 



Dated 1412. 


Sir D'ARCY POWER, K.B.E., M.B.Oxon., F.R.C.S., 



From the Replica of the Stockholm Manuscript in the 
Wellcome Historical Medical Museum. 

With Coloured Frontispiece and IS Plates. 





FROM the foundation of the Wellcome Historical Medical 
Museum in 1913, it has been my intention to publish from time 
to time, accounts of the research work carried out on the objects, 
manuscripts and other documents of special interest and import- 
ance in the Museum. Owing to the Great War this work was 
interrupted and had to be suspended. 

A short time ago, Sir D'Arcy Power, K.B.E., kindly under- 
took the laborious task of translating the interesting ancient 
manuscript of John Arderne of Newark, now in the Royal Library 
at Stockholm, which throws an important light on English surgery 
in the XlVth century. 

We are much indebted to Mr. Eric Millar, M.A., for having 
made a careful transcription of the document and our warmest 
thanks are due to Sir D'Arcy Power for the painstaking and 
thorough manner in which he has carried out the translation, 
which forms the first volume of the series. I trust it will be 
found of value not only to those interested in English surgery 
of the period, of which so little is known, but that it will also 
serve to stimulate the study of the History of Medicine. 



JOHN ARDERNE was born in 1307 and lived nearly to the end 
of the fourteenth century. He practised at Newark from 1349 
until 1370, when he came to London and was probably admitted 
a member of the fraternity of surgeons. Nothing authentic is 
known about his early life but it is assumed from certain auto- 
biographical details in his treatises, that before he settled at 
Newark he was a surgeon in the service of Henry Plantagenet, 
Earl of Derby and afterwards the first Duke of Lancaster. In 
this capacity he visited Antwerp in 1338, Algebras in Spain in 
1343 and Bergerac in Aquitaine in 1347. The Duke died of the 
plague in 1361 and Arderne may then have attached himself to 
the Duke's son-in-law, John of Gaunt, who was called King of 
Castile and Leon in virtue of his marriage with Constance the 
daughter of Don Pedro I of Castile. 

Arderne was essentially an operating surgeon whose practice 
lay amongst the nobility, wealthy landowners and the higher 
clergy. He was himself well educated though a layman and he 
met his patients on terms of equality. He was perfectly honest, 
knew himself to be a member of a serious profession and kept 
so open a mind that he says more than once, after stating his 
own practice " nevertheless do another man as him thinketh 

He was a sound practical surgeon who carried out his work 
by methods which are not very different from those of the 
modern aseptic surgeon. He taught that wounds should heal 
without suppuration, that local applications to them should be as 
little irritating as possible and that the dressings should be 
infrequent. He cut boldly when necessary for he was not afraid 
of bleeding, and he had sufficient originality to invent the opera- 
tion for the cure of fistula which, after falling into disuse for 
nearly five hundred years, is now universally employed. Theo- 

viii. Preface 

retically, he was well read in surgery and in the general literature 
of the day for he quotes the older writers and his contemporaries 
often verbatim. He must therefore have possessed, or have had 
access to, a well stocked library of manuscripts. But if he was 
centuries in advance of his time surgically he was no wiser than 
his time in medicine. His medical treatment was essentially that 
of the Saxon leeches, treatment by spells, herbs and nasty or 
innocuous substances. In such matters he had no critical faculty 
but believed what he was told regardless of its source. He was, 
too, somewhat of a pharmacist and his name lived longer in this 
connection than as a surgeon. Three of the preparations he 
invented appear in the second issue of the first Pharmacopoeia 
of 1618 and some of them were certainly in use as late 1733. 

Arderne issued his writings in the form of separate treatises 
one of which appeared in 1376 and another in 1377. They are 
in Latin and he says they were written with his own hand. The 
treatises were afterwards collected seemingly after his death and 
by different persons and they were translated into English at 
various times in the fifteenth century. The existing manuscripts 
of his works therefore, contain different combinations of the 
treatises variously arranged. Some are the complete works like 
the magnificent copy on vellum which has such carefully executed 
illustrations that it is usually exhibited at the British Museum as 
an example of fourteenth century work. Others are poorly written 
paper manuscripts whilst others again are merely fragments, for 
they consist of a page or two of a treatise which by some acci- 
dent has escaped destruction. The number of manuscripts still 
in existence show that Arderne's teaching had a considerable 
influence on English surgeons for many years after his death. 
It is remarkable therefore, that none of his work was printed 
until 1588, when John Read of Gloucester published an abridge- 
ment of the "Treatises on Fistula." The publication was made 
as part of a scheme undertaken by some of the Elizabethan 
surgeons to go back to original sources for their knowledge. 
Nothing came of it, however, and to this day the bulk of 
Arderne's work has not passed through the press. 

Preface ix. 

The manuscript which is here given is an epitome in Latin 
made some years after the death of Arderne. It omits much, 
adds something and takes out entirely the personal element and 
quaint touches which make the original manuscripts such excel- 
lent reading. It is in fact Arderne spoilt by his editor a 
catastrophe which still happens to some medical writers of 

It has been known for some time that an illustrated manu- 
script of John Arderne's works was in the Royal Library at 
Stockholm. Dr. 'Edward Alin, of Stockholm, made an extract 
of the obstetrical portion which he published in the Nordiskt 
Medicinskt Arkiv. in 1899.* 

Dr. E. Ingerslev, of Copenhagen made use of the same part 
in his interesting and valuable study of Roesslin's " Rosegarten "f 
and later Professor Sudhoff gave a short account of the whole 
manuscript in the Archiv f. Geschichte der Medizin.% 

The Anatomical drawings in the centre column of Plates I, II, 
III, IV, and XIII, are especially interesting for they show that 
the writer had departed from the old five figure anatomy and had 
adopted the newer methods which are attributed to Henry de 
Mondeville. Professor Sudhoff has already copied them and 
reference is made to them in Dr. Mortimer Frank's edition of 
" Choulant's History and Bibliography of Anatomic Illustration."|| 
Speaking of these plates Dr. Frank says,^f the first three pictures 
represent the osseous (Plate II, centre column), arterial and venous, 
(Plate I, centre column), and nervous (Plate III, centre column) 
systems, while the other two represent the thoracic and abdominal 

* June 1899, No. 2, pp. i to 17, with Plates I-III. 

I The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Empire, Vol. xv, 1909, 
pp. 1-25 and 73-92. 

J Vol. viii, 1914, p. 135. See also Sudhoff, Studien zur Geschichte der Medizin, 
Heft iv, Leipzig, 1908, p. 76. 

The Archiv fur Geschichte der Medizin, Band viii, Plates III and IV, Leipzig, 


|j Published at Chicago in 1920. 
T Page 61. 


x. Preface 

viscera (Plate IV,' centre column, and Plate XIII), and the con- 
tents of the skull and face from the front (Plate IV) and back 
(Plate XIII) in a sagittal section through the median line. 

The position of the arms and legs in four of the pictures differs 
from the frog-like posture of the late post Alexandrian series. The 
arms are brought nearer the sides of the trunk and the legs are 
placed closer together. The arms of one of the pictures (Plate IV, 
fig. 2) are bent at the elbow in such a way that they seem to hold 
apart the two split halves of the thoracic cavity. This and the 
visceral figure (Plate XIII) are entirely original and are without 
parallel in mediaeval anatomical art and, as Sudhoff believes, are 
not based on tradition, whose power he says de Mondeville had 
destroyed. His theory is that the unknown person who inspired 
the artist had actually observed anatomical structures on the 
cadaver without comprehending much of it. 

The picture of the blood vessels (Plate I, centre column) has 
many points in common with the Provengal drawing,* especially 
as regards the position of the kidneys, while the skeletal figure 
(Plate II, centre column) is quite imperfectly drawn and has 
nothing in common with the Provengal picture. The illustration 
representing the nerves (Plate III, centre column) resembles most 
closely the pen sketches of the Arabic nerve figures. It will be 
noted, however, that in the bisected figure forming Plate XIII the 
kidneys are in an approximately correct position when compared 
with the place assigned to them in Plate I. 

Writing in 1909 Mr. Briscoe J. Potter says in his "Chapters 
of Nottinghamshire History," " Our interest in John Arderne was 
revived through a summer visit to Sweden in 1903 when we visited 
the Royal Library at Stockholm where there is an Arderne Manu- 
script of eight pages of vellum made into a roll about five yards 
in length." 

The manuscript, therefore, although its existence was known, 
never seems to have excited much interest as a whole and it was 
certainly never transcribed in full or printed. In 1909, Mr. C. J.S. 

*/The thirteenth century Proven9al MS. at Basel numbered D. II, u. 



Thompson, M.B.E., Curator of the Wellcome Historical Medical 
Museum, when engaged on research work in the Royal Library 
at Stockholm examined it and, by the kindness of the Director, 
obtained such excellent photographs that it has been possible 
to transcribe nearly the whole of it. A replica, the exact size 
of the original is now in the Museum in London. The original 
is written on twelve skins of vellum which are sewn together 
to make a scroll 17 ft. 8 in. long by 15 in. wide. The writing 
is in three columns and is abundantly illustrated by coloured 
pictures, all being quaint, some artistic and many showing a 
sense of humour. The writing I judge to be of the early fifteenth 
century which agrees with the date of 1412 which has been 
added in the text by a later hand. Unfortunately, the history 
of this document cannot be traced to a period earlier than the 
middle of the eighteenth century, when it was discovered by 
Assessor Wessman on a journey he made in the Swedish province 
of Skane, between 1756 and 1758. It was purchased from him 
for the Royal Library at Stockholm where it still remains. 

This is the traditional history of the manuscript. It may be 
altogether incorrect and, if so, there is a fascinating hypothesis to 
take its place. I have already said* that John Arderne seems 
to have seen service with Henry, Duke of Lancaster, and after 
his death in 1361, to have become attached to his son-in-law, 
John of Gaunt. Phillipa, the second daughter and seventh child 
of King Henry IV, was the granddaughter of John of Gaunt. 
She was born in 1394 and her mother, Mary, daughter of 
Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, died in giving birth to 
her. Phillipa, in 1406, married Eric, King of the united Norway 
and Sweden, and went to live at Stockholm with a considerable 
retinue of English men and women. In 1412, when this manuscript 
was written, she was eighteen years of age, and she proved herself 
the capable and accomplished wife of a weak and licentious king. 
She died in 1430. I should like to think that this roll was sent her 
from England by some one who had known and loved the wise old 

* See also Treatises of Fistula in Ano, Hemorrhoids and Clysters, Early 
English Text Society's Publications, Original series, No. 139, pp. x-xiv. 

xii. Preface 

surgeon who had been so long in the service of her grandfather. 
By some one, too, who remembered the tragedy of her mother's 
death, as he caused Muscio's birth figures and instructions to 
midwives to be added to the manuscript, for they do not appear in 
any other collection of Arderne's writings with which I am 
acquainted. It might perhaps have been Sir Henry Scrope, the 
third Baron Scrope of Masham, who had escorted her to Stockholm 
on the occasion of her marriage, and Arderne says that he " cured 
a preste at Lincoln in the house of Master Geoffrey Scrope," uncle 
to this Lord Scrope of Masham. It was not unusual when a 
princess married a foreigner and went to live abroad for the doctors 
of her own country to send directions for her health. The Well- 
come Historical Museum contains such a manuscript which was 
drawn up about 1315 for Queen Isabella, the wife of King 
Edward II of England. A Book of Hours which belonged to 
Phillipa is still preserved in the library at Copenhagen, for she 
was Queen of Denmark as well as of the united kingdoms of 
Norway and Sweden. 

The manuscript was transcribed for me by my friend, Mr. 
Eric Millar, M.A.Oxon, F.S.A., from Mr. Thompson's photo- 
graphic reproduction, and I am greatly indebted to Mr. Millar 
for the skilful manner in which he executed a very difficult task. 
I alone am responsible for the English version. Some of the 
writing is illegible from wear and tear, but in many cases I have 
obtained the sense, and in some instances the actual words from 
other manuscripts of Arderne's works. These interpolated passages 
are in square brackets and are printed in italics. Dr. W. S. A. 
Griffith and Dr. Herbert Spencer have very kindly supplemented 
my obstetrical ignorance by making sense of Muscio's Latin version 
of Soranus, so far as it is possible to do so. The text is corrupt in 
parts and is not identical with that of the Codex Hafniensis tran- 
scribed by Dr. Ingerslev either in the text or the birth figures. 

May, 1922. D'ARCY POWER. 


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The practice of Master John Arderne of Newark in the art of 
Medicine and Surgery, 1412. 

The practice of Master John Arderne of Newark in the art of 
medicine and surgery. 

(I) John (Arderne) from the first plague that was in the year of 
the Lord thirteen hundred and forty-nine up to the year of the 
Lord fourteen hundred and twelve* lived at Newark in the county 
of Nottingham and there cured many of the following diseases. 
First of the Hairf, R. Take . . . part of unslaked lime and 
Psilothrix.J (Plate I, fig. i, left column.) 

put it in water .... a fourth part of orpiment and put it 
. and .... let a depilatory be made .... 
being rubbed. Mingle it with the aforesaid depilatory and they 
easily fall off with little \scarri*gY\, With oil of roses or violets 
or white of egg. Its infusion and .... and red sandal. 
Lotion for the head. (Plate I, fig. 2, left side of column.) 
With an ... lard, in which it is cooked. 
It colours the hair and soothes the head and relieves pain in 
. . . . The lye in which it is cooked is serviceable . . . . its 
broth .... and red sandal. 

Broom flowers or box shavings with red marjoram commonly 
infused in plain water or vinegar [removes the hair\. 
To provoke sleep. (Plate I, fig. 3, left column.) 

* Arderne was 70 in 1377 so that this date is clearly incorrect. It is probable 
that the manuscript was written in 1412 or even a few years earlier. 

t The corresponding section of Bernard Gordon is in the second part of the 
Lilium medicinae where, after treating of the physiology and pathology of the 
hair, he gives a depilatory of unslaked lime and orpiment. 
\ A depilatory. 

2 Master John Arderne 

Let the patient be fumigated with the following : R. mallows, 

chenopodium,* solatrum,t poppy leaves, lettuce and the infusion 

of Alder. 

If this does not succeed, let his head, neck, arms, feet and hands 

be washed with several sleep compellers such as mandragora, 

storax or powdered opium placed on the patient's head. 

If you wish to rouse him drop strong vinegar into his nostrils. 

Against drunkenness. (Plate I, fig. 4, left column.) 

R. Juice of white cabbage one part ; juice of pomegranates one 

part ; vinegar half a measure. 

Boil to full ebullition and let an ounce be taken before drinking wine. 

Also if any man is a drunkard put lignum aloes in his wine and 

let him drink it. 

For Headache. (Plate I, fig. 5, left column.) A cure. 

If it is from the blood, and the age and the courage allows of it, 

cause him to be let blood from the vein which is betwixt the thumb 

and the index finger which is called the cephalick or let venesection 

be made on the shoulders or in the spaces which are round the 


Almansor, Serapion and Avicenna agree upon this cure for headache. 

If the belly is to be relieved twice, or at any rate once, a day either 

let a glyster be given which is best, or, let the head of the patient 

be washed with decoctions of dill, camomile and roses. 

Let the skin of the head be anointed with oil of dill and with oil 

of camomile mixed together. 

For the same [Turditk^ is a proved remedy for headache, even 

if it has lasted a hundred years They also cure inflamed 

* Good Henry. f Nightshade. 

| Turbith a large white resinous root with a starchy interior. Natural Order 
Convolvulaceae. Still used in India : given in powder 3ii 3iv, or in infusion 
from 5! 5iii. " It is eminent," says Salmon (" The New London Dispensatory," 
ed. 1678, p. 19) " against chronic diseases as gouts, sciatica, dropsy, jaundice, 
French pox, scabs, elephantiasis and other breakings out. The powder with 
honey helps gangreens : given alone it is a slow purger and causeth loathing 
and vomiting and therefore it is corrected with pepper, ginger, cinnamon, mastick, 
carraways, etc. It is dangerous for children or women with child." It is much 
of the nature of hermodactyls. 


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To face p. 3 

Surgeon of Newark 3 

eyes, engender . . . ., remove melancholy, sharpen the wits, 
clear the sight and do not allow white hairs to come before their 
time. If any one uses them they improve the memory, purge a 
fever (cure) giddiness ; soothe the teeth and gums and comfort the 
whole body, take away tinnitus of the ears and noises in the head, 
preserve and confirm all complexions and agree with men and 
women at all ages. 

R. Aloes 3iv ; mastiche ; filic. agrestris Si. 

Let them be tempered with cabbage juice and let six or eight be 
given according to age, complexion and time. 
A Gargle. For headache due to rheum or phlegm in the head 
(Plate II, fig. i, left column) . . . . It brings out the super- 
fluities of the brain ; it cleanses even the brain itself and improves 
the memory. It helps hardness of hearing, cures stammering, helps 
to restore the sight and never ceases to comfort it ; it destroys 
torpor of the brain, and is the best thing to remove noises in the 
ears and epilepsy ; it prevents and stops the toothache. The 
prescription is as follows : 

Stavesacre 3i ; pellitory root Sii ; sage leaves, hyssop leaves and 
origanum aa. Siii ; betony 3ii ; ginger selected ; galls ; black 
pepper ; (resin of) larch* 5j ; mustard seeds 3iv. 
Then mix : Galangal [guad^ ?] ; cubebs aa. 3ii . . . . SiJ ; 
liquorice powder 3i. 

Let them be rubbed together and preserved until they are wanted ; 
then let them be moistened with 3i of vinegar, mixed and infused 
awhile. Let the whole be filtered and put into a clean vessel. 
Let three spoonsfuls as hot as can well be borne be taken into the 
mouth and well rinsed round the palate by the tongue. Let it 
all be spat out and another dose be taken, as has just been 
described and let the mouth afterwards be well washed with white 
wine in which is decoct, hyssop, or with aqua hyssopi. 
Of frensy i.e. at the back of the head. (Plate II, fig. 2, left column.) 
R. : Juice of .... lettuce; borage aa. Ib. ii ; of juice of 

* Turpentine. 

t Cyperus or Juncus quadratus, an old name for Southernwood. 

4 Master John Arderne 

[ground ivy ?] Ib. i ; of dodder of thyme ; of dodder aa. 3i ; of 
great cardamoms ; of anise aa. 5|- ; with quinces 3i ; and let a 
syrup be made with clarified honey and let the patient have a 
dose morning and evening. 
For the evacuation of Frenzy. 

R. Of hiera picra 3ii ; imperial cathartic Siii ; powdered agaric 
and powdered rhubarb aa. Si ; let them be confected with a 
decoction of dodder of thyme, dodder, violets and .... equal 
parts and of damsons, &c.* 

A local remedy. R. succory, lettuce, white poppy aa. 3i ; Red 
saunders, white saunders aa. and juice of marjoram ; camomile 
flowers aa. 5i ; of liquid storax 3j and . . . . 3i, with the yolks 
of fouregg s and a sufficiency of oil of roses. This medicine is 
a well tried one. 

Of Heaviness of the Eyes and first against \recT\ Macula and 
the heat of the eyes and watering. It preserves and comforts 
the sight. (Plate III, fig. i, left column.) 

R. being extinguished! seven times after combustion let it be 
powdered and mixed with the urine of a virgin [boy] or with 
white wine and let sufficient honey be added to make it stick to 
the sides of a hollow bason and then shake the basin well so 
[anointed with the Tutty] mixed with the white wine and after 
[the shaking-] allow it to stand a little while to dry until it shrinks 
from the side of the basin, but before it is quite dry add powdered 
hepatic aloes and let it be put upon the live coals and let the 
basin with the \Tutty\ be inverted and let it lie there until the 

* Etc. is often added by a scribe to end a sentence and does not imply that 
anything has been omitted. 

t This prescription is rendered incomprehensible because the scribe has 
omitted to state that the remedy is Tutty. Arderne says in another MS. 
(Sloane 2271) "Tutty or tutie is to be had at the appotticaries and hath been 
sold for xijd a pound. Yt is excellent for payne of the eyes. Yt cometh from 
beyond sea but before yt be occupyed yt must be prepared after this sort. Put 
yt in an earthen pott and sett yt in the fyer whilst yt be very hott, then quench 
yt and ye must quench yt eyther in the juice of ffenell, in white wine or ells in 
the urine of a manchild and when it is quentched heate it agayne as before 
and quench yt until ye have served itt so ix or tenne times at the least &c." 

PLATE 111. 

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Surgeon of Newark 5 

aloes have ceased to smoke. And when it has cooled let the 

residue which sticks to the basin be scraped off and rubbed up 

[finer] if necessary and let a little of the powder be put upon the 

spot in the eye for it cures excellently both the spots and all the 

other aforesaid weaknesses. 

To destroy a Nebula in the Eye painlessly and quite healthily 

with this medicine. (Plate III, fig. 2, left column.) 

R. The whites of 30-40 eggs with [sugar] too beaten up in a brass 

mortar. Afterwards rub in a sufficiency of salt and dry it in the 

sun in a glass vessel. Powder it and put some of it in the eye. 

It destroys the nebula. 

For Blows on the Eyes, however produced, whether with a stone, 

stick, hard root or a sword or in similar ways. (Plate III, fig. 3, left 


Let the patient be treated as quickly as possible with the white 

of egg before the humours are dissolved and the eye is destroyed 

by pain and be careful not to apply any other remedy except white 

of egg well beaten up and no longer frothy and cleanse with 

[small] linen swabs, and place it upon the closed eye and according 

to Lanfranc it will be more effectual if a little [Saffron] and 

woman's milk be added to this medicine etc. 

If the eyeball be ruptured by a blow then that medicine is to be 

placed in the eye which is called "God's Virtue" ("Virtus a deo 

data") and it is so called because the virtue which it has in working 

is greater than that of all other medicines. 

R. New laid eggs of white fowls as many as can be had. 

The whites are separated and are well beaten in a brass mortar 

until [they are like an ointment] and kept in a glass vessel and 

twice [a day] put it into the eye a little at a time until the salve 

is congealed.* 

An ointment against Bleareye and watering of the Eyes although 

it cures best in the decrepit. Above all other remedies] I have 

many times proved this for certain. (Plate III, fig. 4. left column.) 

R. A clean hollow basin greased at the bottom with butter 

* The Sloane MS. reads " untill the coate or tunicle called conjunctiva be 
knytte agayne." 

6 Master John Arderne 

withfJMf/] salt and let it afterwards be dipped in a vessel in which 
is the warm acid urine of a man and let it remain there until the 
urine is cold and afterwards let the \bluish\ coloured sediment be 
taken which sticks to the bottom of the \vessef\ and add to it a little 
of the fat of a capon and mix it in the sun and afterwards preserve 
it in a box. And let the eyelids be smeared with this ointment 
on a spatula, in the evening when he goes to bed and bind it on 
with a bandage until the morning. 

Against an Epileptic Fit. (Plate IV, fig. i, left column.) 
R. The herb Yve major and minor ; burnt human bone aa. 3iii ; 
liquorice Biv. Let it be given morning and night. 
Against Epilepsy svrite these three names with blood -taken from 
the auricular finger* of the patient. 

E3 Jasper JEU Melchior E3 Balthazar and put gold, frankincense 
and myrrh into a box. Let the patient say three paternosters 

and iii Ave marias daily for the souls of the fathers and mothers 

of these three kings for a month and let the patient drink for a 

month of the juice of peony with beer or wine and if he be a 

child write with blood as before .... on a murrhaf and 

let it be put in the beer and without doubt this remedy never 


In every affection of the heart, of epilepsy and future leprosy. 

R. Decoction of the bone of a stag's heart given in wine with 

powdered pearls. If juice of borage be added it will be more 

effective. (Plate IV, fig. 2, left column.) 

Against Deafness. (Plate IV, fig. 3, left column.) 

R. Eggs of ants and earthworms beaten up with white wine and 

distilled in an alembic and, after cleansing the body, injected into 

the ear makes the deaf hear and stops tinnitus. And if from 

a cold cause let the juice of a leek be added. 

In every case of tinnitus in the ear of whatever kind care must be 

taken to avoid bathing and the sun and too strong a light as well 

* The little finger so called, it is said, because it can be introduced into the 
external auditory meatus. 

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To face p. 7 

Surgeon of Newark 7 

as noise and repletion. The belly too must be kept relaxed and 

such relaxation must be maintained. 

In hot causes, too, let absinthe be infused in water with mallow 

and applied ; also in cold causes let a decoction be made with 

white wine. 

Also against a discharge from the ear let lycium* be dropped 

in with oxgall when the discharge is abundant and then let 

the urine of boys be instilled. 

For pain due to an accident or a blow the crumb of rye bread 

is useful moistened with warm wine and juice of absinthe and 

poultices, as well as for the gouty and for puncture of a nerve 

because it dissolves and soothes. 

Against the Salt Fleum.f (Plate IV, fig. 4, left column.) 

Bleed from the cephalic, then scarify the front part of the tibia 

and let the face be anointed with honey mixed with juice of 


For the same. R. The fat of a capon and let it be melted and 

thrown into spring water changed twelve times and at last rub it 

up with a measure of rosewater by mingling it afterwards \with the 

following ?]. 

R. Pine needles by rubbing them up at the same time with a 

quantity of lard and by adding two ounces of quicksilver. 

Let the material be digested at first with syrup of fumitory or 

with oxycrate^ for 8 or 9 times, afterwards let him be purged with 

imperial cathartic. 

Against wrymouth. (Plate V, fig. 2, left column.) 

Wrymouth is due to a kind of spasm which spoils the shape and 

expression of the face drawing or dragging the mouth of the man 

* The inspissated juice of Pyxacanthus chironia ; astringent and bitter, 
t A pimply face. 

" A Somonour was ther with us in that place, 
That had a fyri cherubynes face, 
For sawceflem he was, with eyen narowe. 
And hot he was, and lecherous as a sparrow," 
says Chaucer in his Prologue, 11. 623-626. 

J A mixture of vinegar and water used as a local application for pimples. 

8 Master John Arderne 

or the woman to the ear like that of the fish called the fl[0]under. 
And it is to be observed that in such a case remedies ought to be 
applied to the back of the head between the neck and the head 
and that those remedies which are useful against paralysis and 
spasm are also useful against wrymouth. Still there are some 
special remedies if they can be obtained. In the first place let him 
be purged with i of hiera logadion* and if it has lasted a long 
time it ought to be given daily. 

Then if you are able to get acorus i.e. the root of the water flag 
which has a purple flower, nutmegs and sugar aa. These three 
are useful for their properties, and then make a syrup with honey 
and water. Wine is hurtful in every nerve complaint. But the 
last remedy is cauterizing the veins which are behind the ears, 
or let it be done in the neck as Avicenna says. 
But note that if the wrymouth has lasted for eight months, it will 
never be cured or only with great difficulty. A certain soldier of 
the noble Duke of Lancaster at Age^ir in Spain suffered suddenly 
from wrymouth so that his mouth was drawn back nearly to his 
ear and he could not speak. 

I, . the aforesaid John Arderne, treated him in this way : I 
took the bread made from brown flour (i.e. grey bred) and divided 
it into two parts and I placed them upon the bars beyond the 
embers and I well toasted them. Afterwards I put on one part of 
the bread which had been well soaked in vinegar as hot as the 
patient could bear it and when it got cold I put on the other part 
of the bread soaked in vinegar and thus by often repeating the 
application he was perfectly cured within one natural day. 
Against palsy of the tongue lest the patient die intestate. 
(Plate V, fig. 3, left column.) 

R. castoreum ; black pepper ; long pepper ; pyrethrum ; euphor- 
bium aa. Biiii ; vinegar Bii. 

Being powdered let a powder be made and mingled with juice of 
Rue and let lozenges be made and put under the tongue one after 
the other. 

* The hiera of Logadius of Memphis, see Nic. Myrepsus, Lugduni 1550, 
p. 456, No. 14. 



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Surgeon of Newark 9 

For loss of speech. 

Let a gargle be made with wine of the decoction of hyssop and 

pellitory aa. B|- or let the tongue be rubbed with powdered 

stavesacre, castoreum, sal ammoniac, black pepper and long pepper, 

mustard, pellitory, and origanum. And let it be rubbed until the 

saliva flows freely when .... *Let lozenges be made and 

let them be put one after the other under the tongue. (Plate V, 

fig. 4, left column.) 

For Toothache. (Plate V, fig. 5, left column.) 

Let the tooth you want to remove be rubbed with the gum of Ivy 

and it will immediately fall out or even if it be only applied to the 

tooth. But be careful not to touch the other teeth. Symphytum, 

i.e. henbane, does the same first steeped in vinegar and then 

cautiously applied round the tooth. 

Rubbing the tooth with hazel bark does the same. 

Mastich whitens and cleans the teeth. 

A cure for Quinsy, that the materies morbi may be evacuated with 

the secretions of the belly and by bloodletting and by attracting 

the material to the opposite side and by applying cups beneath 

the breasts or on the thighs and let a gargle be made to drive the 

material to the surface, and with plasters applied externally. And 

note of sponge and of wool tied on being first dipped in honey 

and being thus soaked removes it from the place and frees from the 

danger of suffocation. 

In the hot cause \lana succida^ dipped in a decoction of hyssop 

applied with olive oil or camomile is useful. In cold cause let 

AgrippaJ boil in strong wine .... ^dialthaea and being 

spread on a stupe let it be wrapped round the neck. 

* " Quum datur ex ictis eisdem ultimo dictis " says the MS. 

t " Lana succida," Arderne says in his treatises on Fistula, is " wolle that 
groweth atwix the legges of an ewe, about the udder, full of sweat, not washed." 
It was a crude method of obtaining what is now called Lanolin. An undressed 
fleece is still used in folk-medicine. 

\ Unguentum Grypa, an ointment much recommended by Nicolaus Myrepsus 
[ed. 1550, p. 210, No. 43] for abdominal pain. 


io Master John Arderne 

Note that the veined scabious and devil's bit are very serviceable 

either as gargles or as plaisters. 

The signs of death in Quinsy. 

If there is foaming at the mouth it is a deadly sign or if the 

corners of the eyes become black or green, and if the pulse is 

lost or the extremities become cold, death will occur the same day, 

and if a cold sweat exudes beneath the armpits and is felt there. 

For Botch of the throat. A soothing application for such botch : 

Raisins made into an emulsion with dates, dried figs, orris root and 

goats' dung. Filter and give it as a gargle and let the patient be 

rubbed externally with oil of violets or with warmed butter and 

marshmallow. (Plate VI, fig. i, left column.) 

A plaster made of flour matures, breaks and relieves such a boil 

and such things hasten the cure. 

Against matted glands. Ground ivy* ground up and infused with 

oil of cummin plastered on. (Plate VI, fig. 2, left column.) 

Also goats' dung with vinegar is useful if it is employed as a 


Against swelling of the Uvula. If the body be plethoric bleed 

from the veins under the tongue. There are also such local 

remedies as : a gargle with styptics at the beginning of the attack ; 

with maturatives whilst it is in progress and with cleansers during 

its decline. (Plate VI, fig. 3, left column.) 

If it is of hot causef use styptics with solatrum and rose-water 

and let a gargle of this kind be made. 

Also, R. Tragacanth, gum arabic, sarcocolla| incorporated with the 

juice of solatrum^ and a little vinegar. Apply by inunction. 

* Ground ivy, Hedera terrestris. " This herb " says Dr. James Alleyn in the 
New English Dispensatory, Lond. 1733, "is mightily in use both in shops and 
common Prescription. It is not only prescribed in almost all distempers of the 
Lungs and Breast but also accounted good in obstructions of the viscera. It is 
reckoned to do wonders in Tubercles and tartarous indurations of the lungs. 
Willis mightily commends its powder in obstinate coughs, especially in children." 

t With fever ? 

I A granular gum like Mastiche used as an agglutinative. It is the inspissated 
juice of Penaea mucronata and P. sarcocolla. 



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To face p 1 1 

Surgeon of Newark n 

If it is of cold cause the juice of nettles and bramble rubbed up 

with salt is useful in this case also mastiche as a gargle with kail 

juice with tragacanth powder and gum arabick. 

Of hoarseness from shouting, watching and fatigue. Give a bath 

and poached eggs and conserve of apples and orach and lovage 

and a confection of linseed and bean flour. (Plate VI, fig. 4, left 


Observe that phlebotomy should not be done for hoarseness unless 

it is of hot and moist cause. 

For severe hoarseness pills of asafoetida and fenugrec and orobus* 

and make an electuary for this is of much service in hoarseness 

from a cold cause. (Plate VI, fig. 5, left column.) 

If the materies morbi is of a moist cause dried figs and decoctions 

of calamint with tragacanth and gum arabick are helpful. Dried 

figs are serviceable in all causes. 

For roughness of the voice. Make a poultice of sieved bran with 

milk of almonds, sugar candy and the whites of eggs. 

Against a cough whether cold or hot. (Plate VI, fig. 6, left 


R. Dried figs, raisins aa broth a third part. Digest 

them with liquorice and honey and make a decoction with maiden- 
hair, origanum and hyssop aa. Let the patient avoid acid and 
salt things and let him live with moderation. 

A cure for a cough from cold and moist cause. Let the breath 
be held because it warms the lung and the whole chest. 
Likewise pills of myrrh and storax with honey held under the 

Likewise sulphur rubbed up with poached eggs. 
Likewise rubbing with warm oils as oil of lilies with red wax and 
costus and spikenard and cummin. 
Let a dried fig be given. 

Against Cold Rheum. (Plate VI, fig. 7, left column.) 
R. Absinthe and white horehound a handful of each ; ground ivy 
a third part. 

* Vetch. 


Let them be digested in white wine or , in water and let the 
patient be made drowsy by the steam (inhaled) through his mouth 
and nostrils with the head covered. w 

But note that chewing three grains of white incense daily is 
useful against all rheums from a cold cause and .... 
R. Liquorice juice 3xii ; of the seeds of citron melons 3v ; 
tragacanth and gum acacia aa. 3i. 

Make it into lozenges and let one be kept under the tongue 
until it is dissolved and let the liquorice juice be swallowed. 
It is useful in every rheum. 

In hot and cold cases 1^. Liquorice juice 510: melon and quince 
seeds 5v : gums tragacanth and arabic aa. 5ij ; make lozenges 
and let one be held under tongue until it is dissolved and let 
the liquorice juice be swallowed. This is useful in every fever. 
Against a cold cough. 

A water of sieved bran wonderfully cleanses the lung and chest 
if horehound, calamint, hyssop, figs and liquorice be digested 
with it. 

Against dryness of the Chest. 

R. Violets 3j ; figs 3i ; horehound and poppies of each 3i. 
Make a decoction with sugar. 

Also let an electuary be used of iris, mint and horehound. 
If anyone is full of phlegm. 

R. Hyssop ; mint ; maiden hair* aa. a handful ; horehound half 
a handful ; agrimony a quarter of a handful ; cinnamon 3J ; 
orrice Bii ; gum arabic and tragacanth aa. 3 liquorice 3iv. 
Make a syrup with a tisane of barley and beans and add to it 
one pound of sugar and an equal quantity of honey. 
Against phthisis with fever. (Plate VII, fig. 3, left column.) 
R. Endive ; maidenhair ; scolopendra ; enula campestris ; shep- 
herd's purse; horsehoof; duckweed aa. 3i ; barley sugar 3ii, etc. ; 
gum arabic and liquorice aa. 3ii ; four seeds of the cleansing cold 

* Alleyne in his dispensatory (1733 p. 15) says: "True Maiden-hair 
grows about Montpellier but is seldom or never brought into England. The 
Maidenhair here recommended is, therefore, the Wall-rue or white Maidenhair." 


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ZXtf photographer has in error reproduced the bottom of Plate VII at the top of th is plate. 

To face p. 13 

Surgeon of Newark 13 

seeds* 3i ; of quince seeds and of cotton seeds aa. 3ii ; and of 

all the saunders aa. 5% ; of water-lily flowers Bii ; sugar q.s. 

Without fever. 

R. Calamint ; hyssop ; maidenhair ; scolopendrium aa. a handful ; 

agrimony half a handful ; lily root ; smallage seeds ; pine cones 

aa. 5i ; mallows 3J ; figs and juice of liquorice aa. one quarter. 

Make a syrup. To be given in a tisane made of barley and beans 

with honey Ib. i 

Against Vomiting of Blood by the Mouth. (Plate VII, fig. 4, 

left column.) 

R. Hypoquistidisf ; acacia ; balaustmesf ; psyllium ; white coral 

and red coral powdered ; hematite ; plantain seeds ; 

quince seeds ; bole armoric ; terra sigillata ; dragon's blood ; juice 

of green mint ; juice of roses and of sumach aa. 3xv. 

Make a syrup with three pounds of sugar and make the syrup with 

rain water or with rosewater. 

It is excellent in bleeding from the mouth and for dysentery. 

A Syrup for the Consumptive, for the hectic, the wasted, the 

phthisical, for those who cough, and for the Asthmatic, since 

it cleanses and purifies, soothes and feeds and is useful in healing 

and for driving out discharges as well as for its strengthening 

virtues. (Plate VII, fig. 4, left column.) 

R. Root of iris and hyssop aa. 3i ; maidenhair three handfuls ; four 

seeds of the greater and lesser celandine; coriander seed; mallow 

seed ; seed of the white poppy ; cotton ; fenugrek ; bitter vetch ; 

marmalade of liquorice ; marmalade of raisins ; marmalade of 

pines and of almonds ; marmalade of husked barley aa. 3ii. 

Cook them over a slow fire with dry sticks in sweet well water 

* The greater cold seeds were : The greater hot seeds were : 

Citrul, Cucumber, Gourd and Melon. Anise, Caraway, Cummin and Fennel. 
The lesser cold seeds were : The lesser hot seeds were : 

Endive, Succory, Lettuce and Bishop's weed [Ammi majus] Amo- 

Purslane. mum : Smallage and Wild Carrot, 

f The juice of the Holly Rose dried in the sun an astringent. 
J The wild pomegranate flowers also astringent. 
The fleawort. 


H Master John Arderne 

without sediment and add half a pound of bread and two pounds 

of sugar. Make a syrup. 

To cleanse the Chest of gross humours. (Plate VIII, fig. i, left 


R. Root of fen[?z/] ; root of smallage aa. 3x ; of liquorice 3vi ; 

sweet almonds 3iv ; hyssop ; mallow seeds Sii ; 

cubebs 3xx ; figs 3ii. 

Digest to a third in eight pounds of water and administer as a drink. 

Also a good and well tried powder. R. Seripula resin senna 5i 

and seripula i.[e.~\ turbith* With the turbith one half of ginger 

and let it be taken in pottage. 

Against difficult breathing. (Plate VIII, fig. 2, left column.) 

R. Elecampane ii ; Horehound and iris aa. ^\ ; Hyssop a handful ; 

Caniepitheos (?) a handful. 

Make a syrup with sugar. 

If there is Fever. 

R. Maidenhair and Spleenwort a handful of each ; the four cold 

seeds aa. and a half. 

Let a syrup be made with sugared bread, and a tisane made with 


Against Pleurisy. (Plate VIII, fig. 3, left column.) 

Let the patient first be bled from the saphenous vein of the affected 

side and if the blood comes out black do not stop it until it gets red 

and if it does not become red let him be bled from the basilic on 

the opposite side. 

If a plaister can be put on the side these are examples : 

Let powdered figs, dates and raisins digested together be mixed 

with hog's lard and placed over the painful spot. 

Also juice of ordinary cress and of watercress two handsful of 

each ; hog's lard ; wheaten flour ; linseed meal ; and fenugrek a 

sufficiency, and let a plaister be made. 

Let a syrup be made 

R. Lily roots ; wormwood one third part of a handful ; hyssop a 

quarter of a handful ; Camomile half a handful ; Honey q.s. as 

much as is enough to mature it. 

* MS. gloss. 


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To face p. 15 

Surgeon of Newark 15 

R. Hyssop a handful ; Agrimony half a handful ; Lily root one 

part ; white henbane a quarter of a handful ; tragacanth 3| ; dried 

figs 3ii, smallage seeds 3 liquorice 3iv. Make a syrup with 

honey, &c. 

If there is Fever. 

R. Of Spleen wort and of maidenhair each a handful ; Purslane 

four handfuls ; cold seeds 3 ; Mallow 3i ; Liquorice juice 3J ; 

Violets 3 ; Borage flowers 3 ; Gum Arabic 3ii ; Tragacanth 3iii. 

Make a syrup for a drink with barley and beans. 

The following are the signs of a pleurisy. 

A long continued acute fever and the hardness of it has .... 

in the side and causes him to move from side to side coughing 

continuously .... panting .... forsooth the malice 

of the disease, the neighbourhood of the heart, continuous fever, 

lividity .... i.e. slow breathing which is due in the pleuritic 

to the great stabbing pain in the side. He has this peculiar feeling 

on account of the connection of the brain with the nerves. The 

hollow cough is due to the materies morbi is inflammation.* 

Pleuropneumonia is inflammation of the lung. The treatment of 

pleuropneumonia is the same as the treatment for pleurisy except 

that in pleuropneumonia stronger medicine should be employed. 

Palpitation of the Heart of Cardiac origin. (Plate VIII, fig. 4, 

left column.) 

R. roses 3 ; aloes 3i ; cardamons ; cinnamon ; cloves aa. 3ii ; Myrrh 

gr i ; Juniper 3iiJ. 

Let them be powdered and treated with wine. Make a plaister to 

be applied to the chest and over the region of the heart. A syrup 

can be made by adding honey enough. 

If with fever. 

R. Putty ; Red Ochre 3i ; Sandal 3J. 

Pound them together in a mortar with rosewater ; mix and make 

a plaister for the heart region. A syrup can also be made by the 

four cold seeds with sufficient sugar. Some give the diarodon of 

Julius in these cases. f 

* The whole of this passage is so corrupt that I can make nothing of it. 
I Nicolaus Myrepsus gives several formulae for diarrhodon. 

1 6 Master John Arderne 

Item. R. Sugar of roses 3i ; and a pennyweight of powdered 
mother of pearl and mix them. 
A spirituous syrup for the same. 

R. Borage flowers 5i ; roses Bi ; ashes 5iii ; Enulacampane 5i ; 
Osimus (?) 5ij ; Lignum aloes 5i; Galangal 5^ ; Cinnamon 5ss; Quince 
seed 5iij ; White coral 5ii ; Sugar q.s. 
Make a syrup. 

Anoint the body with mucilage of Fleawort, with white of egg 
and with a little populeon.* 
If it is with fever let anise be put in. 

In cold causes. A drink of diacomeron, rosata novellaf diatrion.j: 
Note that in heart cases the flowers of borage put in wine and 
drunk are very serviceable. 

A well tried and very sure method against heart attacks and 
Syncope. (Plate IX, fig. i, left column.) 

R. Slime of Gold 5i ; Perforated and unperforated Pearls aa. 5i ; 
behen alb. and Rue aa. 5iv. 

Make a powder and give it in food and in drinks. If the 
syncope is due to loss of blood give chicken broth with wine. 
If it is the result of colic or passio iliaca take a tile and make 
it hot, wrap it in a cloth and lay it over the painful spot. Then 
make this plaister. 

R. Of smallage root, Fennel and peony, ground ivy. Heat them 
together, make a paste ; wash the painful part and apply the 
plaister as hot as it can be borne. Sprinkle the patient's face with 
rose water and then let him be given 5|- of diamargariton. || 
Against Dysphagia. (Plate IX, fig. 2, left column.) 
If it be from a cold cause make a gargle of pellitory ; iris ; caraway ; 
laurel berries, rue with honey and sugar. If it be from an inflam- 
mation let a gargle be made of fenugrek, dates, camomile, and figs 
with sugar. Make a plaister of them also for external application. 

* An ointment made from the buds of the white Poplar or Ashen tree. 

t Nicolaus Myrepsus De Antidotis, No. 204. 

J Idem, No. 213. Idem. No. 38 = hermodactyls. [| Idem, No. 37 



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To face p. 17 

Surgeon of Newark 17 

Against Boulimia i.e. irrational appetite. (Plate IX, fig. 3, left 


R. Cardamons 5i ; cinnamon and cubebs aa. 5i ; Sugar ad. Ib. i. 

Let it be used ad lib. 

An Electuary : 

R. Cinnamon, anise, caraway and bishop's weed 3; galangal Bii ; 

sugar q.s. To be given on an empty stomach. 

For deficient action of the Liver. (Plate IX, fig. 4, left column). 

Let the materies morbi be digested with oxymel of squills and 

let it then be evacuated with Hiera picra and let it be used with 

cloves and mint 5| and with Galangal. 

Against deficient action of the liver from Cold. Eating with 

mint and everything acid is good according to Avicenna. 

Electuary of diatrion piperion,* diacalamintum,t diasene,} dia- 

cinimum ; diaprassium, diagalangal.|| All these are useful in 

cold cause. 

Against the Drink Habit. (Plate IX, fig. 5, left column.) 

R. Cloves, aloes, mace, cubebs, mastiche and make an Electuary. 

If it is from an abundance of cold humours let the diatrion piperion 

and galangal be used and let him eat warm foods. 

Do this against thirst. Let him eat cucumber seeds, purslane, 

lettuce, sorrel and orach, equal parts of each. 

A Syrup : 

Juice of sorrel, lettuce, purslane and mallow aa. Make a decoction 

and add half an ounce of tragacanth and make a syrup with sugar. 

If he is still thirsty after taking the medicine nothing is so good to 

give as chicken broth. 

For Belching from a hot cause or bad complexion of the stomach 

or of the humors. Give an electuary of Abbot's diarrhodon^[ ; the 

three sandals; diacitoniton ** and rosata novella.ff (Plate IX, 

fig. 6, left column.) 

* Nicolaus Myrepsus, No. 117. f Idem, No. 105. J Idem, No. 112, &c. 

(?) Diacinamomi, idem, No. 468, 476 and 506. || Idem, No. 222. 

11 Idem, No. 94. 

** Diacydium, a purgative containing quince and jalap. 

tt Idem, No. 204. 

1 8 Master John Arderne 

From a cold cause. 

Let the materies morbi be digested with oxymel and, if it be from 
a faulty state of the humours, the materies morbi being digested, 
let it be purged off with turpith and hiera picra, &c. Note that 
turpith should never be given unless the third part is ginger, or 
with milk of almonds. 

And these remedies are also useful against belching, viz.: Mint : 
calamint ; origanum ; rue aa. ; caraway and cloves. Then let the 
patient eat in the evening of Diacinimum, diagalangy and afterward 
he may have a draught of wine ; and plums soaked in wine and 
heated as hot as he can bear them laid on his stomach. 
Against hiccough. (Plate IX, fig. 7, left column.) 
Let the leech tell the patient to hold his breath as long as possible. 
But if this does not stop the hiccough make him vomit, with 
radishes and mastiche. Let him drink warm water with a decoc- 
tion of dill. Rue, too, drunk with wine is useful in such cases. 
Against retching. 

R. A mixture of sugar and vinegar to be given in lukewarm water. 
It is also good in acute fevers. 

To keep in health he says that no one should eat more than he 
can digest, because if he does so squeamishness results and the 
humours are either hot or cold. If hot the materies morbi can be 
digested with oxysacchara or with acidulated syrup since the things 
digested can be purged with tamarinds. If it is at the mouth 
of the stomach give him warm water mixed with oxysacchara or 
acidulated syrup. If the materies morbi is cold at the mouth of 
the stomach it can be digested with oxymel. Let rolls (?) be made 
and put into oxymel and give 5ii in a solution of rocksalt. 
For coldness of the stomach and against Flatulence. (Plate IX, 
fig. 8, left column.) 

R. Mastiche, cloves, cubebs and cardamons 5|- ; cinnamon, ginger, 
spikenard and anise aa. 5iii ; oxymel 5ii ; musk nut 5i and as much 
sugar as all the rest ; lignum aloes 5iii. 

Make a powder of dry mint and let it be rubbed up and powdered 
and put it in pottage. This will cleanse the stomach of putrid 


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To face p. 19 

Surgeon of Newark 19 

. . . .* is with purging if the hurtful humor settles at the 
orifice of the stomach it should be done before dinner, but if it is 
in the centre or in the pit of the stomach the evacuation should 
be after a meal whence it happens that it is better to give rich 
and fatty things that the attraction may be easier and quicker. 
To stop vomiting. Bandage the limbs and rub them. 
The following are local remedies : Barley meal, plantain juice, 
. . . . and a little vinegar with stale bread. Make a plaister 
of them and put it over the entrance of the stomach. There is also 
a special syrup ; juice of mint and juice of endive aa. with pome- 
granates. Make a syrup with Alexandrine sugar. Powdered 
cow's horn, also, drunk with rainwater stops every external and 
internal haemorrhage. 

Against distension of the Stomach. (Plate X, fig. i, left column.) 
R. Warm a brick, wrap it in three folds of linen and place it over 
the painful spot as hot as it can be borne. 

Also R. Smallage seed, nasturtium and parsley digested and 
pounded. Make a plaister and apply it over the place. It is good 
against bellyache. 
A Plaister against stomachache. 

R. Hyssop, absinthe, dill. Let them be digested in wine and 
made into a plaister. This plaister relieves flatulence and dis- 
tension as does also the diaciminum electuary. 
Against bellyache when worms are the cause. (Plate X, fig. 2, 
left column.) 

Let the materies morbi be digested with oxysacchara or syrup of 
vinegar. Purge afterwards with a proper chologogue. If the 
humours are phlegmatic they should be digested with the 
following : 

R. Mint ; calamint ; origanum ; borage ; nasturtium aa., a 
handful of each ; of fennel root, parsley and lily aa., a handful ; 
cinnamon 3^ J cassia lignum 3ii ; ginger 5i ; galangal 5. Make 
a syrup after the materies morbi is digested. 
R. Ginger and Turpith electuary 5i, and give it to the patient 

* A paragraph " Against Nausea " which is so damaged as to be illegible. 

20 Master John Arderne 

with milk of Almonds. Some patients have pain after taking 

this medicine. 

R. Digest mallow roots ; marsh mallow ; fennel ; parsley and 

smallage aa. 

Wash the painful part with the water in which the decoction was 

made and let the plaister be afterwards applied. 

The following mellicrat* may be given to a patient suffering 

from a lientery.f (Plate X, fig. 3, left column.) 

Give of mellicrat Biss. myrobalanesj chebulse and myrobalanes 

citrinae. Let them be dissolved in rosewater for two days and 

let the water after they are dissolved be used according as 

. . . . and the digested materies morbi be evacuated with hiera 

picra, or the benedicta. Anoint the patient back and front from 

the stomach to the flanks with run honey mixt with mint, mastiche 

and mustard. Another treatment is R. Juice of mint and treacle 

rubbed in front and back and let the patient have food which 

is tender and dry. 

Against dysentery when the cause is in the liver and moist. 

Purge the patient well. R. The clot of a hare cooked in rain 

water and given with a syrup, made of plantains, &c. 

* Mellicrat was a mixture of honey and water originally used as a libation 
when sacrificing, but afterwards introduced into medicine as a remedy. Nic. 
Myrepsus, " De antidotis," No. 337. 

t Lientery, a form of diarrhoea in which undigested food is passed. 

t Myrobalanes are the fruit of several species of Terminalia and of the 
Phyllanthus emblica, " A kind of outlandish Prune," says Salmon [" The New 
London Dispensatory," 1678, p. 79], "not known to the Greeks, but found out 
by the Arabians. They grow in the East Indies, and are found wild in 
Goa, being a fruit sharp in taste much like to service berries." The five 
sorts of Myrobalanes are (i) The Bellerick to purge Flegm : (2) the Chebulae 
which first purge Flegm, then Choler : (3) the Citrine or yellow which purge 
Choler : (4) the Emblick which purge Flegm and water : (5) the Indian or 
black which purge Melancholy. Dose from 5vi-iss. The Bellerick are round : 
the Chebulae long with corners : the Citrine are round like the Bellerick : the 
Indian black and eight cornered. Myrobalans were much used in medicine 
until the middle of the seventeenth century in the treatment of diarrhoea and 
dysentery, for it is said that, like castor oil, they acted first as a laxative and 
then as an astringent. 

Benedicta laxativa, Nicolaus Myrepsus, " De Antidotis," No. 509. Vide 
p. 23. 

Surgeon of Newark 21 

Against Thirst. 

R. A handful of roses ; dried myrtle 5iii ; of ash leaves ; mallow 

seeds 3J ; sugar bread Ibs. iii ; rose water Ib. i. Make a syrup 

in rain water. 

An electuary R. Syrup of saunders and syrup of poppies aa. Ib. ; 

syrup of roses; confection of red roses. Essence of unperforated 

pearls Sv ; dragon's blood* 3ii ; bole armoric Si.f 

Mixed well together and incorporated. 

A plaister. R. Boli [armoric] and dragon's blood aa. 5^ ; galls 

of oak bark and plantain seed aa. 3i; roses 3J. Let them be 

boiled in rainwater. 

The best cure. R. The yolks of eggs in boiled vinegar, rubbed 

up and sprinkled, with powdered galls and sumach and given to 

the patient. 

If it is from a hot cause. Let bran be boiled to prevent griping 

and let a quantity of one lagena of waterj be injected. Make 

a fomentation of a decoction of mallow and marsh mallow, Bears 

breech and wheaten flour. 

In like manner make an ointment of fenugrek, cornflour, hen's 

fat, goosefat and goat's spleen. Dissolve and add wax and oil. 

Let the inside of the pot be smeared with the ointment. Make 

it hot. Sprinkle vinegar on it and when the steam rises let it be 

inhaled through a funnel. 

If from a cold cause make a fomentation of myrrh and the leaves 

of leeks with a little castoreum or make a decoction of them, &c. 

* Dragon's blood. The resin obtained from the fruit of Calamus draco. 
There are several varieties, the Canary, East Indian, Socotrine and West 
Indian. It may have been the Cinnabar of Dioscorides. It was reputed to 
stop all sorts of fluxes and spitting of blood, staying catarrhs and strengthening 
the stomach. Outwardly it healed wounds, stopped bleeding, fastened the 
teeth and, applied to the Navel, stopped dysenteries. 

t Bole Armoric, an earth of a reddish brown colour due to the presence 
of iron oxide. It was imported from Armenia. Many kinds of similar and 
argillaceous earth clay containing iron oxide, chalk and magnesia were 
imported in the form of small cakes or flat masses stamped with certain 
impressions and hence known as terra sigillata. Bole Armoric was used as 
an astringent both externally and internally. (See " Terra Sigillata," C. J. S. 
Thompson, Proc, Int. Cong. Med. t London, 1913.) 

t A flaskful. 

22 Master John Arderne 

Prolapse of the Rectum.* 

R. Penny royal, marjoram. Make a decoction and let him receive 

the steam or let him sit over these herbs. (Plate X, figs. 4 and 5.) 

Make a powder of them and let him be sprinkled with the flowers 

over the prolapsed anus. 

Against Passio Iliaca. 

If wind is the cause. R. Take the hot seedsf and powder them 

with absinthe and warm wine. Make a plaister and put it over the 

place. These are electuaries for it : diacuminum ;J dianisum ; 

diaspermaton. Let the plaister be applied over the place. Make 

it from oil of violets, lily roots, marshmallow and wheaten flour. 

Make it into a plaister. Let him have chicken panade and pork 


Against the Colic. Digest with syrup . . . . 3i ; and lily root. 

Infuse them together and put in a quarter of a pound of oil and let 

it be applied with an instrument. 

For worms. R. Centaury and absinthe mixed and drunk with 

white wine. Item R. drink hart's-horn with salt and it should be 

exhibited with milk. 

Note. A Plaister for killing all kinds of worms. 

R. Millefoil .... and vinegar or sour wine well cooked 
together. Apply it below the navel as hot as can be borne. 

Note, too, that centaury cooked in wine kills snakes and all worms 
in the belly. 

Against Gonorrhoeal inflammation. 

Purslane seed ; water lentil ; water lily and psidium aa. 3i. Make 

a syrup. 

Against a bad complexion of the Liver. (Plate XI, fig. i, left 


Let the materies morbi be digested and evacuated with diapru- 

num 3j or purged with a drachm of rhubarb, or let it be evacuated 

* Henry IV suffered from prolapse of the rectum. He died 20 March, 1413. 

f Vidt p. 13. I Nic. Myrepsus, " De Antidotis," No. 328. 

Any urethral discharge was called gonorrhceal, so that purulent urine 
associated with chronic cystitis, pyelitis, tuberculous disease, &c., would be 
included. Gonorrhoea specifically Arderne calls " chaude pisse " (vide p. 28). 

Surgeon of Newark 23 

with a drachm of hiera cerevisia acuta with a drachm of rhubarb. 

These often act until [the materies morbi] is evacuated. One 

scruple of endive, mallow and willow leaves extracted by a bath, 

made up as a lozenge with bramble syrup 5i. 

[Of basilicon\. A plaister for external application. Sandals, 

roses, animal charcoal with juice of nightshade, warm vinegar 

and a little oil of roses with barley meal. Some add juice of 

plantain to the barley meal. Apply it externally over the liver. 

It is also useful in obstruction in a warm complexion. 

In cold cause let the materies morbi be digested with diuretic 

oxymel* and decoction of eupator, root of fennel, parsley and 

smallage aa. ; absinthe ; the materies morbi being digested let it be 

evacuated with an equal mixture of benedictt and hiera picra. 

The materies morbi being evacuated make a stupe with decoction 

of origanum, calamint, absinthe, smallage, saliva of bird's tongue, 

cloves [and oxymel] on the stupe. Let it be exhibited with one 

drachm of aurea alexandrina. J 

Against constipation when it is due to deformity of the liver and 

hot materies morbi. 

Digest the materies morbi thus : R. endive, scolopendrium, 

maidenhair aa. one handful ; the four lesser cold seeds and 

fennel aa. Bj ; sandals Bi- Make a syrup of them and purge the 

patient with rhubarb. 

* This is probably Mesue's Oxymelitis confectio Julianios dicta. Nic. 
Myrepsus " De Oxymelitis," p. 580. 

i The Blessed Laxative, Benedicta Laxativa, was an electuary made of 
Turbith, Diagrydium, the bark of Spurge root and Hermodactyl with the seeds 
of fennel and anise, rock salt and honey. The electuary owed its laxative 
properties to the Diagrydium which was made by baking scammony in a hollow 
quince covered with paste. Nic : Myrepsus " De Antidotis," Nos. 448, 507 and 509. 
Hiera picra was an aloetic purgative still largely sold in chemists' shops under 
various names. The British Medical Journal, vol. i, 1911, pp. 163 and 250, 
reports a case of a woman who stated that she had taken pills of hiera picra 
in the hope of producing a miscarriage. She died with the symptoms of 
poisoning from cantharides. The hiera picra was given as an electuary, it was 
one of many similar preparations Nicolaus Myrepsus gives 37 hierae which 
were kept by the apothecary in a dried form until wanted for use under the 
general heading of species. (See "Hiera Picra," C. J. S. Thompson, M.B.E.) 

} A kind of opiate named either after Alexander, a physician, or Alexandria 
where it was first used. 

24 Master John Arderne 

If it be from a cold cause he must by no means eat butcher's meat, 

but he may have the flesh of fowls. Let him sometimes drink 

poor man's broth and sometimes rich man's, but if he is a pauper 

let him drink his own urine. If, for any reason he will not drink 

it let him wash the region of the liver or collect his water for 4 

or 5 days and then make a decoction. Distil it and clear it with 

white of egg and of that water make a syrup with these seeds, 

smallage, carrot, parsley, caraway, fennel and the four cold seeds 

not cleansed, &c. aa. B^, a handful of .... and an ounce of 

red saunders. Make a syrup with honey and sugar q.s. and give 

it with 5iii of benedict in a decoction of polypody, anise and fennel 


Against inflammation of the Liver from a Cold Cause. (Plate XI, 

fig. 2, left column.) 

R. Wool soaked in the juice of nightshade or of plantain for two 

or three days and let a pad of lint be applied over the part and 

they are counter irritants and afterwards let the patient use them 

for a resolvent. 

Make a plaister of barley meal and juice of absinthe to put over 

the liver. Afterwards maturatives such as wheaten flour with 

butter, or linseed, or fenugrek with fowl's lard. The abscess 

having burst and pus being produced it can then be evacuated 

with diarhubarb* or with hiera saracenicaf or with diaprunum. 

For a cold inflammation. Make a fomentation with lana succidaj 

soaked in wine and oil, the wine being decocted with centaury and 

roots of daffodil. 

Make an application of R. dry figs soaked in juice of absinthe and 

vinegar and strong lye, with the lard of geese and fowls. Digest 

the materies morbi with this. 

R. of smallage ; of dill, {parsley andfennel\ aa. Sj and of their roots 

aa. Si. Make a syrup with honey and sugar. 

* Nic. Myrepsus, " De Antidotis," Nos. 489 and 504. 

f Saracen's consound is the solidago saricenica. "It is a traumatic and 
vulnerary herb not inferior to any. It cures wounds and ulcers of the lungs, 
the yellow jaundice, long tedious agues and fevers : eases pain and is a good 
gargle." Surely a gift from the Crusades. 

% See page 9 note. 




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To face p. 25 

Surgeon of Newark 25 

Against a flux of blood from the liver. (Plate XI, fig. 3, left 


Bleed from the Saphena vein. Make a syrup with rain water, 

decoction of sumach, of roses, of mastiche and of the cold seeds 

with syrup of plantain, 

A syrup for the same, Balaustines, psidium, roses, myrtle, aa. 5i ; 

plantain seeds [and the seeds of quince and~\ barberry ; terra sigillata, 

bole armoniac* aa. 5ss ; dragon's blood, red coral, lapis hamatitesf 

aa. two drachms. 

Make a syrup with rainwater and give it with rosewater. It is 

both astringent and alterative. 

Against Dropsy from hot and cold cause. (Plate XI, fig. 4, left 


R. Yppie minor aqua. i.e. chekynmetej beanflour and oatmeal aa. ; 

elderflowers and marshmallow. Take them all, powder them and 

seethe them in pig's milk. Put it into a bag and place it on the 

chest. The dropsy will be drawn into the purse of the testicles 

and the skin of that testicle can be then opened and the water let 

out. It must only be let out a little at a time and the hole must be 

closed immediately. 

When this is done make a consolidating plaister of bole armoniac 

with incense, dragon's blood and white of egg. Put the plaister 

over the aperture. 

Also against dropsy when the materies morbi is in the fissure 

of the liver. Add a half a drachm of rhubarb if you wish to 

evacuate it, or this can be done with 5| of diaprunum or with 

half a drachm of trifera saracenica or with electuary of the juice 

of roses or give him spikenard to drink in goat's whey. 

* See page 21. 

t The loadstone was thought to be preferable to steel [chalybs] for medicinal 
purposes as an astringent and to increase the momentum of the blood. It was a 
powerful deobstruant and greatly promoted the menstrual discharges. 

J Added in English. Chicken meat is an old name for various weedy plants 
includng the endive. It has now been narrowed down to Chickweed the 
Stellaria media. The name here used by Arderne appears to be the same as 
that employed in the Simon. Barthol. anno 1387 [Anecd. Oxon.} 25. Ippia minor, 

26 Master John Arderne 

Against . . . .* (Plate XII, fig. i, left column.) 

(Close ?) the hole with the aforesaid powder of the three aforesaid 


Place it on the fire and give it to the patient in the morning, 

late at night, and also at mid-day. 

Electuaries in cold cause are the following: trisandalon,f rosata 

novella; electuaries in cold cause are, Abbot's diarrhodonj and 


Also for Jaundice with ascites and tympanites. 

Decoction of plantain juice boiled down to a half and given as 

a drink. It cures and is a well tried remedy. 

Also rub up earthworms in aqua benedicta|| or in wine. Give 

it to the patient once a day for 5 days. This too is a well tried 


For the splenic passion in cold cause with continued fever. 

(Plate XII, fig. 2.) 

Anoint the splenic region with butter made in the month of 

May lest the illness be increased by fever, If it be without fever 

digest the materies morbi thus : R. Scolopendrium, endive, 

germander and ground pine aa. a handful ; the bark of ash and 

red willow aa. one handful ; an ounce of cuscuta, two drachms 

of capers ; borage juice Ib. J. 

Make a syrup with sugar. The materies morbi being digested 

purge it off with imperial 

Also in cold cause let the materies morbi be digested with oxymel 

and decoction of scolopendrium, leek, capers, ashbark, tamarisk, 

and broom, fennel roots and parsley with honey and sugar q.s. 

* Undecipherable. t The mixed powders of the three Sandal woods. 

I Diarrhodon powder consisting of rose leaves, sandal wood, cardamom 
seeds, powdered cinnamon, saffron and fennel. It was used as a stomachic 

Diacydium or diacitoniton was a purgative composed of quince and jalap. 

|| The aqua Benedicta was an Antimonial wine used for megrim and head- 
ache from a foul stomach. The dose was one-half to an ounce and a half. 

II An electuary containing resin of Scammony pleasant and dedicated to kings 
and great men because it thoroughly purges the whole body without hurting it. 


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To face p. 27 

Surgeon of Newark 27 

When the materies morbi is digested purge with diasene or hiera 

picra* with a pill of the 5 kinds of myrobolanes.f 

Of pain in the kidneys from a hot cause. (Plate XII, fig. 3.) 

If it be with rheum the patient should eat potherbs and mallow and 

it is a good thing to give diaprunum and the like (made) with cold 

herbs such as poppy and the like. 

If it be without rheum. Digest the materies morbi with sugar and 

vinegar or with syrup of vinegar and being digested purge it off 

with imperial cathartic or with .... or with syrup of roses. 

If it be from a cold cause let the materies morbi be digested with 

diuretic oxymel and afterwards with squills and purge with hermo- 

dactyl benedict. Bleed from the external saphenous in either cause 

after the evacuation of the materies morbi. 

If it comes from too much blood, bleed from the hepatic J vein. 

If from a hot cause let the kidney region be anointed with oil of 

violets and May butter. 

Against Inflammation of the Kidneys. 

Make a decoction of the root of the lily, leek and hyssop and give 

it in goat's whey. 

Against Pissing blood with the urine. (Plate XII, fig. 4.) 

When it comes from repletion bleed from the hepatic vein ; when 

it comes from the spleen let the blood be drawn from the left side. 

Make a syrup of acacia or balaustines with plantain juice or a 

decoction of it. 

Against pain in the kidneys from stone growing in it. 

A plaister of pigeon's dung and honey applied hot is good. 

Mustard also relieves pain in the kidneys and [bowels and~\ cures 

[swelling] of the nerves. 

Item, against weakness of the Kidneys. 

R. Plantain well seethed in white wine. 

A drink against humor in the kidneys or [bladder] is wont .... 

wisdom most for boys that [do not bear medecines well. Cromwell 

seeds one] Ib. and rub up well in a mortar and [pour on it hot water 

and cleanse it] well and let it be given daily. 

* Vide p. 23. t Vide p. 20. 

J (i.e.) the basilic. Wild pomegranate. 

28 Master John Arderne 

[through^ a cloth eight they feel. For .... cure of the 

Cure of the stone R . . . . 
they will issue . . . . aa. 5iii of pepper 
with stones .... 
with honey .... 
and on an empty stomach of .... 
with a decoction of saxifrage or .... 

an aqueous infusion of . . . .* (Plate II, fig, I, right column.) 
To break a stone. 

R. [Remove] a boar's bladder from its place and empty it of the 
water. Fill it with the blood of a he-goat aged four years or 
at any rate not less than three years old. The goat should have 
been fed on betony and saxifrage with fennel, parsley, butcher's 
broom, asparagus, milium solis and barley and afterwards in 
summer with ivy berries before the berries have begun to blacken. 
Give it to the patient to drink with lukewarm white wine. But 
if you wish to test it, put into the (pig's) bladder a similar stone 
. . . . with the aforesaid blood and you will find the stone 
reduced to powder within seven days &c. 
For those who piss blood from the kidneys or bladder. 
Make hydromel from a decoction of the tincture of succory, 
smallage and bramble with fig juice. Let it be drunk daily for it 
cleanses the urinary tract well as Avicenna bears witness. 
A wine of decoction .... aquatica, anise .... with juice 
of pellitory quickly provokes urine. 

For the disease which (is called} chaudepisse. (Plate II, fig. 2, 
right column.) 

R. [Parsley and boil it] in water [untif] it is turned [into a 
mucilage] let it be well shaken with oil of roses or violets and then 
add [to it] the milk of a nursing woman aa., in which \liquor\ 
camphor is dissolved and inject with a syringe. 
For those who cannot retain their water. (Plate II, fig. 3, right 
R. Let him take frequently in pottage the burnt hooves from pigs' 

* These passages are undecipherable from injury to the MS. 

Surgeon of Newark 29 

feet and a powder made from them. He will be freed (from his 

infirmity) but he must abstain from everything which provokes 

urine. Apply this plaster over the kidneys. R. Acorns, psidium, 

balaustine, acacia, roses, bole, and holly ana Biiii ; lapidanus (?) 

Ib. iii. Mix them with myrtle syrup and make a plaister. Use 

it with barley, oats, almond, pirus, lemon and purslane. 

Let it be used with a heavy wine and plenty of water. Item, a 

powder of the bladder of a bull, pig or goat with a decoction of 

acorns taken as a drink soon helps, and it should be boiled, if 

necessary in rainwater. I have tried it many times. 

Note, that according to Alexander* acorns are styptic as is seen 

in strangulated .... and chestnuts equally but to a less 


For prolapse of the Rectum. (Plate II, fig. 4, right column.) 

Make a fomentation of galls, psidium, balaustines and comfrey. 

Seethe them in rainwater and vinegar. 

For any cause leading to prolapse of the rectum. 

Let the patient be bled from the saphena vein at the outside of 

the ankle and give a [fomentation of galls, oak, bark, pomegranate 

and comfrey infused in rain] water. 

In cold cause wine with sulphur. Make a fumigation with psidium 

and galls. 

In hot cause with vinegar let balaustines be given with psidium ; 

for consoldatives (bugle, daisy) and comfrey in water. f 

Against severe and intolerable pruritus ani. (Plate II, fig. 5, 

right column.) 

R. Juice of celandine, tapsibarbastusj, strained honey aa. Boil each 

of them to dryness and then take them off the fire and put them 

aside for future use. When you want to use it for pruritus take 

as much as you want to use and put on it powdered burnt vitriol 

and burnt copperas. Boil them together again if necessary until 

a firm ointment is made. Put a little on the anus, and the itching 

* Alexander of Tralles fl. saec : vi A.D. 

I Henry IV suffered from Prolapse of the rectum, so the condition excited 
a good deal of attention at the time this MS. was written. 
J Moth Mullein used for coughs and spitting of blood. 

30 Master John Arderne 

will certainly cease, and even pruritus in every part of the body. 

This ointment is called TAPSIMEL from Tapsibarbastus and mel 

(honey). Forsooth, this is a notable and noble ointment.* 

Against Rupture. (Plate III, fig. i, right column.) 

R. The four consolidating juicesf and polypodyj aa. Crush them 

together in a mortar and put oakbark and rubia major aa. 3ii into 

the powder. Wash them with the best red wine that can be 

procured. Put them in a glass vessel and let them stand for 

4 days .... from the day of putting on the iiii consolidating 

juices and polypody. And when you wish to operate give it to the 

patient to drink and place the lees over the rupture with a bandage 

applied secundum artem. Do this for nine days and the rupture 

will be cured. 

A health drink to be used daily. 

R. Hyssop and horehound for the chest ; catsmint and absinthe for 

the lungs ; mint .... and smallage heals the belly ; sage 

and .... heal even the stomach and bowels. 

A good prayer to be said. (Plate III, fig. 2, right column.) 

O God, Who hath wonderfully created mankind and hast more 

wonderfully reformed him, who hath given medicines to govern 

the health of men's bodies, of Thy great goodness look down from 

Heaven and give Thy blessing to this antidote or electuary or 

* Arderne's tapsimel survived him for many years and was in use until the 
middle of the eighteenth century. Alleyne says in the "New English Dispensa- 
tory " (London, 1733, p. 336): "Powers of scabious, Valentia scabiosce : The 
Powers of mullen, Tapsi valentia ; and honey of mullen, tapsimel were the con- 
trivances of John Arderne, an experienced surgeon at Newark in Nottingham- 
shire, who lived in the reign of Edward III." 

The formula for making tapsimel, as given by Alleyne is: "Take of the 
juice of celandine and one part mullen, of despumated honey two parts : boil 
gradually till the juices are evaporated : adding thereunto, if the operator pleases, 
calcined vitriol and alum with copperas and again boil into an ointment. It will 
certainly cure itchings in any part of the body and is a most noble ointment," 
says the author. 

f The four juices were those of Consolida major [Comfrey], C. media 
[Bugle] , C. minima [the daisy] , and C. Regalis [larkspur] . 

I Polypodium quercinum the Oakfern. It was used in many decoctions, 
diet drinks and medicated ales. 

Mangiota (?) Bengal madder. 

Surgeon of Newark 31 

potion, &c., that the bodies of those whom it shall enter may be 
worthy to receive health of mind and body through Christ our 
Lord. Amen. 

This confection is useful for headache and likewise for madness 
and for rheum of the eyes (Plate III, fig. 3, right column) and also 
for causes in the ears and teeth ; and for paralysis and for all 
who are in any way abnormal. It also relieves those who cough, 
those who suffer from mouth or liver troubles and the pleuritic. 
It relieves fevers and colds and poisoned bites. It is very inimical 
to the bites of venomous animals and of a scorpion and snake ; 
[it relieves] the leprous and those afflicted with impetigo. It is 
even serviceable for bleeding whether from the mouth or from 
piles or in a pregnant woman. It stops all fluxes of the belly 
and it is also good for the arthritic, the nephritic and the sciatic. 
It brings relief to the gouty (Plate IV, fig. i, right column) : 
R. Of confection magma* of long and round pepper ; balm of 
Gilead aa. 3iii ; ginger and florentine orris 5i ; opium ; agarick 
and eastern aloes aa. 5iii ; cinnamon bark, peony, lily root, white 
pepper, dittany, and oleaster epithem.f .... aristolochia 
longa aa. 5xii ; myrrh 5io ; squills; asafoetida ; Celtic nard| ; 
sweet smelling juncus ; chestnuts and goldilocks. Spikenard, 
gum arabic, acacia aa. 58 ; sugar and cinquefoil aa. 5vi ; peony, 
rhubarb, calamint, turpentine, yellow gentian, aniseed, cinnamon, 
carpobalsam, tragacanth; cardamon seeds; meadow saxifrage; 
gum arabic ; storax .... smallage ; calamint ; elecampane ; 
galls ; cypress ; laurel berries and flowers, &c. asphalte ; galba- 
num ; St. John's wort .... savory and silphium and cyperus 
aa. 4 ounces; opoponax three ounces, ammoniac three ounces. 
Two to three drachms may be given to an adult according to 
his strength. Give it to him hot whilst he has the flux on him 
but cold for others. 

* Magma the sediment. 

t An Epithem was a moist and soft external application which was not an 
ointment or salve. 

{ The Celtic nard had virtues similar to Valerian. 

Carpobalsam the fruit of the Balsam tree growing in Syria and Arabia felix. 

32 Master John Arderne 

Against Spasm i.e. Cramp. (Plate IV, fig. 2, right column.) 
Bryony root seethed in water and afterwards crushed [by itself or] 
with Agrippina* and with oil of [linseed] or with marshmallow 
ointment or oil of lilies or camomile applied to the neck as 
a plaister cures the cramp in whatever limb it occurs because 
the origin of all nerves is in the neck and cramp is due to 
a contraction of the nerves at the roots. f 4 

The following CHARM has been found most satisfactory in cases 
of cramp by many who have used it both in foreign countries 
and at home. 

Take a sheet of parchment and write on it the first sign 
JH Thebal ]H Suthe B3 Gnthenay E3 . in the name of the 
Father I+t and of the Son H and of the Holy Ghost 13 
Amen E3 . Jesus of Nazareth H Mary I( John E3 Michael 
H Gabriel H Raphael |+| The Word was made Flesh j[ . 
The sheet is afterwards closed like a letter so that it cannot 
be readily opened. And he who carries that charm upon him 
in good faith and in the name of the Omnipotent God and firmly 
believes in it will without doubt never be troubled with the cramp.J 

* See page 9. 

t It is noticeable that the writer of this 1412 MS. has altered the physiology 
of the passage, for the Sloane MS. states that the source of all diseases is in the 
neck, and cramp is due to a contraction of the muscles at their origin. 

J The section on the treatment of cramp by a charm is much abridged. 
The writer has omitted the fact that Arderne obtained it from " a certain knight, 
the son of Lord Reginald de Grey de Schirloud near Chesterfield, who was 
at Milan with the Lord Lionel, at the time when the Lord Lionel, son of the 
king of England, married the daughter of the Lord of Milan. The English 
there were troubled with spasms due to their potations of the strong and hot 
wines of the country and of too many carouses." The knight had with him the 
following charm and saw a certain gentleman so troubled with the spasm that 
his head was drawn backward nearly to his neck, just like a crossbow, and he 
was almost dead from pain and starvation. And when the said knight saw this 
he brought the charm written on parchment and placed it in a purse and put 
it on the neck of the patient whilst those who stood by said the Lord's Prayer, 
and one to our Lady Mary, and as he swore faithfully to me, within four hours 
or five he was restored to health." Lionel, Duke of Clarence, married Violante, 
the daughter of Galeazzo Visconti at the door of Milan Cathedral on June 5th, 

Surgeon of Newark 33 

Against Bleeding Piles. (Plate IV, fig. 3, right column.) 

Moisten the finest wheaten flour* with juice of millefoil and make 

it into pills and give three or four of them daily in the morning 

moistened with wine of the decoction of millefoil or of plantain 

or of shepherd's purse, or of nettles or (of periwinkle). 

And phlebotomy should be performed from the basilic vein of the 

arm on account of the previous materies morbi and afterwards from 

the saphenous at the outer ankle. The tibial saphenous diverts 

the hsemorrhoidal flux and permanently restrains the piles. Note 

that all authors say that remedies which restrain the piles also 

restrain the menses and vice versa. 

Against Inflamed Piles. (Plate IV, fig. 4, right column.) 

Wash (the part ?) in the juice of parsley and salt set aside whilst 

hot until it has cooled, and let this be renewed many times and 

this is a sure remedy for swollen piles. And if powdered (cummin ?) 

is put on it or added it will act all the better. 

Powdered hare burnt stops the bleeding from piles better than 

anything. It should be mixed with white of egg, and with unburnt 

hare's fur and placed over them with butcher's broom or with 

a light stupe. 

It is relieved by the yolk of a hard-boiled egg to which oil of roses 

with saffron has been added. Rubbed up separately and applied 

on wool this relieves in all causes in a wonderful manner. Note 

that for the pain of piles nothing cold should be applied. 

Against Sciatica. (Plate V, fig. i, right column.) In the first 

place let the materies morbi be digested with syrup of fumitory 

and afterwards purge it off with a vomit and then with a laxative 

made as follows : 

R. Hermodactylf two parts ; turbithj and agaric one part. Give 

* White wheat is called Siligo ; the red Triticum ; the gray bearded wheat 
Ador or Pyrus the word here used, Ador, was the purest and finest wheat. 

f Hermodactyl probably colchicum as it was considered a specific for gout. 
It was a cathartic and was of three kinds white, yellow and black. 

\ Turpeth was a root with properties similar to hermodactyl but somewhat 
more active. Where Agaric failed Turbith took effect and when this was insuffi- 
cient Colocynth was given. 

Agaric was the fungus growing on the Larch tree Polyporus officinalis. 
It was given as a cathartic. The dose was 5i-5ii. 

34 Master John Arderne 

it to the patient and then make a soothing plaister to be placed 
over the sciatic, made thus : 

Camomile and herb ivy a handful of each ; the yolks of four hard 
boiled eggs and breadcrumb with vinegar. Make a plaister and 
then cauterise as you know how to do. 
Against Gout. (Plate V, fig. 2, right column.) 
Take a sufficient quantity of black soap and add to it as much of 
the yolk of raw eggs as equals one half of the quantity of soap. 
Mix them thoroughly together in a box or bowl until the soap has 
lost its colour. When this is done spread it thinly on a strip of 
linen with a spatula or the thumb and apply it forcibly over the 
painful part. But over this plaister put a protective layer made of 
the white of egg and wheaten flour on a linen cloth. Let this be 
applied firmly above the aforesaid plaister to prevent its removal 
before the proper time unless any need for doing so arises. 
Against Gout from a hot cause. 

R. Horsefat or marrow and mix saffron with it. And if it be from 
a cold cause mix Euphorbium with the fat. 

In gout from either cause.* A plaister of green laurel and honey 
made with the lard of a male pig. 

Being rubbed in a certain abbot was freed of gout in the foot in 
a single night so that he could ride next morning. f 
Of Arthritic Inflammation. (Plate V, fig. 3, right column.) 
A certain priest cured all his patients who suffered thus from 
a cold cause with the juice of the flowers of broom and honey 
cooked together until the honey was dry.J He anointed the place 
with it and in good sooth I have often proved its value. 
Against arthritic and sciatic inflammation, and against dryness of 
the nerves and tension of the nerves a plaister is useful com- 
pounded of wax mingled with oil of decoction of herb ivy and 

* i.e. hot or cold. 

t Arderne says that he himself cured this abbot. He thought so highly of 
the ointment that he advises its composition to be held " privy and precious and 
show it not but to thy son or to one as well beloved." 

J Arderne does not claim to have used it, but says that " Maister Roger saw 
the cures of the said priest and afterwards wrote of them that they were sooth.' 1 

Surgeon of Newark 35 

powdered cinnamon or of wax and cinnamon only. It should be 

applied to the painful part whenever it hurts. 

A Ruptorium* [is made in the following mannerJ] 

R. Let quicklime after burning be well mixed with black soap 

with a spatula by placing on it a little fasting spittle. Keep it 

well rubbed until it becomes tolerably thick and then set it aside 

for an hour. Then rub a little butcher's broom into the ointment 

and make a round pill as large as you wish the hole to be. Put 

a linen cloth over the place where you want the hole and fix the 

cloth with diachylon. Make a hole just in the middle of the cloth 

as large as the hole you require in the limb as is here depicted : 

Against gout. (Plate V, fig. 4, right column.) 

Make a Clyster whether the cause is hot or cold and for all pains 

in the joints as well as in all serious wounds whether in the head or 

of the muscles or nerves and in all injuries caused by shaking, and 

always in every operation let a clyster be the first thing. A clyster 

made of milk and honey with a little salt injected through the anus 

purges equally well the choler, phlegm and melancholy. 

To kill Worms in the Belly. (Plate VI, fig. i, right column.) 

Barberry, zedoary seedsf powdered and drunk with milk and it is 

best if it be drunk with mare's milk. It kills all worms and snakes 

living in the human body. 

Item. Garden nasturtium or watercress drunk with the seed of 

earthworms^ kills all intestinal worms. 

Note that in all cases of difficulty in pissing black soap 

vigorously beaten up with pitch and afterwards placed over the 

navel in the shell of a large nut (walnut) and tied on speedily 

makes the patient pass urine and in all retention of urine provokes 

its passage. (Plate VI, fig. 2, right column.) 

* A Ruptorium was employed to destroy the skin over an abscess in 
preference to incising it. 

f Zedoary consisted of the roots of Kampferia rotunda. It was in great repute 
as a remedy for rheumatism. There is no mention of the seeds being used. 

J The seed of earthworms does not occur in the earlier texts. 

36 Master John Arderne 

I have tried it on one king* and two bishops in foreign parts. 

And note that the stuff ought to be warm when it is applied, 

because warm applications are soothing and solvent. 

If once saw a young man who had a stone lodged in his penis 

as large as a bean which could neither be passed through the eye 

of the penis nor could it be pushed backwards but stuck in the 

middle of the penis, as is here depicted : 

I easily cured him too by an incision. (Plate VI, fig. 3, right 


I put the youth on his back and tied the penis on each side of the 

stone with linen threads to prevent the stone escaping elsewhere, 

and, having made a small incision over the stone with a lancet, 

I squeezed it out and afterwards secured the outer skin over the 

hole with a needle and thread. I then applied an astringent of 

white of egg and finely ground flour having previously placed next 

the wound powdered dragon's blood and bole and cotton. I 

wrapped up the penis in an old and thin piece of linen wetted 

with the aforesaid astringent and sent him away in peace for three 

days4 Also in another dressing I loosened and removed the 

stitch and with the aforesaid powder or with white ointment or 

gum arabic I completely cured him in fifteen days. 

And you need not be alarmed even though urine comes through 

the wound for three or four days, for the patient will certainly 

be cured. 

When the penis or vulva is inflamed, with heat, redness, great 

swelling and excessive pain. After puncture take a slender wooden 

clyster pipe such as is here depicted (Plate VI, fig. 4, right 

column) and inject some warm milk and warm water with it 

between the prepuce and the glans. Squeeze the orifice of the 

penis at the end of the prepuce with your finger to prevent the 

fluid escaping too much and do this twice at each sitting. 

* The king was presumably John of Gaunt, titular king of Castile ; we have 
no means of determining the identity of the two bishops. 

I This history is here told of an individual and not impersonally as in the 
earlier MSS. 

J i.e., did not dress him for three days. 

Surgeon of Newark 37 

Afterwards take oil of roses and put it into the bladder of the 
enema and put it with the clyster pipe into warm water and when 
it is warm inject the contents as I have said. 

When this is done take a piece of linen as wide as six thumbs' 
breadth and smear it well with the ointment of the yolk of a raw 
egg rubbed up with oil of roses. Wrap up the penis and afterwards 
support it in a bag so that the head of the penis does not hang 
down and thus increase the swelling. Repeat this once a day 
generally in the evening it will effectually relieve the pain, heat 
and other bad symptoms and will assuredly produce a satisfactory 
discharge without any further addition. It is a great help too, if 
the penis be fomented daily with a decoction of mallows, violets, 
[henbane] and bran. 

Ascertain as soon as the prepuce can be retracted whether there is 
an ulcer or vesicle beneath it, then mingle powdered aloes with the 
sharp white ointment and let them be well incorporated together. 
But if the cure is to be brought about as quickly as possible breathe 
the saphenous vein at the inner ankle in both feet. This form of 
phlebotomy is very helpful and should in no wise be omitted. 
Some affections of the Testicles and their Purses. (Plate VII, 
fig. i, right column.) 

They also suffer from ulcers, excoriations and pustules, itching and 
many other bad conditions like erysipelas, herpes and wounds. 
They may also be hurt by dog-bites or from castration in some 
people. It also happens that both testicles swell though occa- 
sionally only one is enlarged, but this happens from injuries like 
mounting a horse or from a blow or from wateriness. Be it 
noted that always in every operation (upon them) blood should 
be taken from the vein behind the inner ankle of both feet, if 
it can be done. 

For swollen Testicles. Make a plaister of bean and barley meal 
with unpurified honey mixed together. Add a little vinegar ; make 
the plaister and apply it hot, but first anoint the part with oil 
of roses. 
To reduce redness and excoriation of the Testicles. Oil of 

38 Master John Arderne 

violets beaten up with the egg mixture is a good application after 
the parts have been fomented with warm water. Also powdered 
tannin with rotten oak wood i.e. Worm,* mixed with the best 
honey is useful in excoriation of the penis and testicles for it 
soothes and dries excellently. 

Note that according to authors a botch in any part of the body 
becomes converted into a fistula or cancer if it be not cured 
within three or four months. When, therefore, there is a botch 
of the anus or outside near the anus it may be recognised by 
these signs, scilicet ; swelling, pain, heat, itching, and pricking. 
(Plate VII, fig. 2, right column.) 

Note, too, that a botch forming below the ANUS is cured with an 
infusion of the oil of roses in which white lead has been incor- 
porated or burnt lead or litharge or any of them if they can be had 
\inixecf] with white of egg. But caution him against straining at 

Also if the belly is constipated, it may be relaxed with a plaister 
of mallow and hog's lard or with a watery decoction of mallow and 
bran and fresh butter or by giving this kind of clyster, f (Plate VII, 
fig. 3, right column.) 
A powerfully soothing ointment. 

R. Rub up one or two handsful of common domestic mallows in a 
mortar and when they are sufficiently pounded leave them for 7-9 
days in a quart of common oil until they putrefy. Then boil them 
on the fire for a long time until the oil is of a good green colour 
and afterwards strain and set it aside for use. 

This ointment is good for soothing the pain of botches and it 
softens them if it is applied on lana succida. 
Note that the wool which grows between the thighs of sheep and 
is soaked with their sweat is called " Lana succida " and not washed. 
An Ointment useful for wounds and cancerous ulcers and for those 
botches which bleed and for the malignant carbuncles which are 
called plague tokens and for botches caused by bad materies morbi. 
It is made thus : 

* " Worm " is added in English. 

t The prescription for the clyster is omitted by the scribe. 

Surgeon of Newark 39 

R. Three ounces of the oldest hog's lard. Let it be [mingled with 
vitriol] Biv and laid over a fire \_and cleansed and ground\ in a 
brazen mortar strongly and afterwards mix it with lard after taking 
it off the fire. And a fruitful ointment will be made which does not 
ball, but if it is wished to make a harder ointment, i.e., a plaister 
add wax and black pitch because pitch is able to draw from the 
lower to the upper parts and the same doth vitriol.* 
Alum "Water is made thus : R. Take as much alum as is required. 
Rub it up well, add eight parts of good strong vinegar and boil 
it in a pot over the fire until only the half remains. Then take 
it off the fire and strain it. It is called Aqua aluminis and is 
used for itching, scabies from salt fleum, and this water cleanses 
when it is warmed. 

An injury to the leg which I cured in a nobleman when he had 
suffered from it for eighteen years. (Plate VIII, fig. i, right 

I first removed the flesh down to the bone with an ointment of 
roses and I scraped it every day. And one day when I was 
scraping the bare bone with an instrument it moved upwards and 
downwards. I watched this remarkable node but for the rest 
I gave up any further operation and put nothing over the wound 
except liciumf mingled with new honey and the yolk of a raw 
egg applied on carded linen stupes and I did this from day to day 
until the aforesaid bone with the flesh receding from it, appeared 
at the end of the wound and became more and more moveable. 
And when I saw this I put the point of a scalpel under the edge 
of the bone and raised it little by little. But that piece of bone 
was four thumbs in length and two thumbs in breadth and in 
thickness it extended nearly to the marrow of the bone and it was 
the front of the tibial bone i.e. Schynbone. After the separation 

* The scribe has written calcantum by mistake for vitriolum. 

t "Licium," says Arderne, "is made thus : Take the leaves of capsifoil and 
bruise them in a mortar and press out the juice and put it in a brazen vessel or of 
glass and dry it in the sun and keep it for use. It is the best medicine if the 
fingers of any man forsooth have been long unhealed of unwise care, or of 
negligence of the patient after that the bone is taken out" 

40 Master John Arderne 

of the bone I finally closed the wound with a Hcium dressing of 
honey, &c. and the yolk of raw eggs. 

Against a stinking, itching, granular, sanious and serpiginous 
ulcer. (Plate VIII, fig. 2, right column.) 

When no other remedy was of any use I well washed the whole 
of the spreading ulcer and vigorously applied to it a powder of 
realgar mixed with black soap. The patient suffered great pain 
for twenty-four hours and his hand was much swollen by the pain 
and heat. And when I saw this I put on the yolk of a raw egg 
with oil of roses and I anointed his hand with the said oil. At 
last a separation began round the edge of the ulcer and the 
aforesaid remedy did no harm to the healthy skin, but only that 
part died which had been affected. But continuing the dressing 
with yolk and oil of roses all the skin of the hand came away 
easily and was completely separated without injury to the nerves 
or veins, And when it had separated I dressed the wound with 
yolk of egg and honey of roses most delicately mingled and 
abstracted. I kept it in place with strips of lint between the 
bones and completely cured the patient. 

After consolidation I applied a diachylon plaister softened with 
an ointment of mallows and lily &c. 

I cured a man from Northampton* of the aforesaid Fistula in 
ano who had three openings in the left buttock and three in the 
cleft of the scrotum as is here depicted (Plate VIII, fig. 3, right 
column) and all in turn (communicated) the one with the other and 
had perforated through the middle of the rectum. I cured him by 
incision of all the holes both in the rectum and elsewhere. 
Blood welled out strongly from the incision in the rectum because 
the fistula was very deep. I, therefore, dipped a sponge in cold 
water and swabbed up the blood ; afterwards I put on the wound a 
blood styptic of powdered madder &c. and a good sponge having 

* From another manuscript we learn that this patient was John le Colier 
who was Mayor of Northampton in 1326-7 and 1339-40. He seems to have 
been a most regular attendant at the meetings of the Town Council because 
his name appears as a witness to thirty-three documents between the years 
1315 and 1340. 

Surgeon of Newark 4 1 

been placed under the patient (he was made) to sit in a chair and 
immediately the bleeding ceased. When he had taken food the 
invalid was put to bed and slept well all that night without any 
bleeding \forsootk\ and in the morning he said he was " fine,"* &c. 
Afterwards, however, viz. on the second day after the operation I 
filled all the wound with powder " sine pare "t and with oil and egg 
and sal. populij and with diaflosm and in less than twelve weeks I 
cured him completely. And he said, indeed, that twenty doctors 
had treated him and he had been operated upon by ten. Neverthe- 
less he rode on horseback about the fortieth day after I made the 

And note that I have cured ever so many with the remedies here 

For Piles at the Anus. (Plate IX, figs, i and 2, right column.) 
A certain man had a pile on his nates which sometimes discharged 
blood and sometimes matter and it was like the morus celsus which 
is in English the molbery. I dressed him with pulvis grecus at 
night and in the morning the pile was half mortified. I plucked it 
out with my fingers gently but firmly and when it was gone a little 
black blood escaped but after the flow of blood I applied the greek 
powder and the bleeding was stopped, and over the powder with a 

* Bene. 

t The powder "sine pare" or in French the "Poudre sans pere " was a 
stimulating powder of arsenic and vitriol. Arderne says of it " this powder is 
called peerless for it hath no equal in its working. For why, it mortefieth and 
bringeth out dead flesh or superfluous or putrid in all wounds and ulcers. And 
wit you that this powder beguileth never the patient nor the surgeon, for it doth 
not wickedly. For why, if the surgeon be uncunning and put his powder in a 
wound or in an ulcer not having dead flesh, it doeth no harm to the wound or the 

\ " Salus populi " was a salve containing the juice of the Chelidonium majus. 
Arderne used it for lips scorched by the sun or chapped by the wind and " it 
availeth against the burning by fire. This ointment would I never want for the 
many benefits of it. And wit thou that it is the best remedy to them that have 
the emerods or the fistula." 

Diaflosm is the plaister used as a local application whilst tapsimel [v.p. 30] 
is the confection for internal use. Both seem to have been invented by Arderne. 

4 2 Master John Arderne 

layer of vegetable wool intervening I put the Narbonne* plaister 

spread upon a linen cloth to preserve the powder and prevent it 

from escaping and thus with a continuance of the said treatment he 

soon became convalescent. 

The Greek Powder is made thus : 

R. Yellow orpiment ; black pepper ; quicklime and barley meal aa 

purified honey 3 parts with one quarter of wine. Mingle it with 

the preceding powders to form a paste and make a cake. Heat 

it upon a hot tile over a slow fire so that it does not scorch and 

when it is ready to be powdered crush it on a stone and when it 

begins to blacken on the tile let it be turned frequently, so that 

it does not burn, until it is quite dry ; then reduce it to powder 

and keep it. 

With this I have cured those [piles with'] increasing bleedings 

[and other bleeding swellings in] the palm of the hand ; and this 

powder mortifies watery superfluities wherever they occur. 

Against the bite of a mad dog or other animal. (Plate IX, fig. 3, 

right column.) 

A leek chewed in the mouth and put over the bite avails much. 

Item. Rub up dead nettles with salt and apply it. It heals well, 

and extracts the venom. 

Item, for every [kind of] bite let the patient drink powdered 

potentilla root in wine, and terra sigillata does the same if used 

with tapsibarbastusf on the wound seethed in water or in wine. It 

extracts all poison. Or use any other remedy which has been or 

will in the future be recommended which you may have better. 

* The Narbonne plaister was a particular favorite with Arderne. It was 
diachylon boiled with oleum siriacum "and when it hath boiled enough," as 
there were no clocks or watches in his day, take it off the fire and let it stand 
still without moving for " the space of a pater noster and Ave Maria, that the 
litharge of the lead that is in it may be descend to the bottom. This plaister is 
called Noir-bone for though it be black nevertheless it is good," which was 
Arderne's little play upon words. The oleum siriacum may have been the oleum 
syriae the fragrant essential oil obtained by distillation from the Dracocephalum 

t Vide p. 30. 

Surgeon of Newark 43 

Against the bite of a Toad.* (Plate IX, fig. 4, right column.) 

Rue drunk with water or cooked in it, and chew some rue. Put 

bruised rue on the bite with honey or salt. 

Against the stroke of a scorpion. (Plate IX, fig. 5, right column.) 

Three or four drops of blood are to be drawn immediately close 

to the stricken place and then are to be smeared over the place 


Honeysuckle, too, bruised by itself, and with all its parts without 

the addition of anything else placed on severe stinking ulcers of 

the leg which bleed and are discharging and increasing in depth 

to the nature of cancer 

I have happily and wonderfully cured them when they were 

obedient to no (other) remedy. 

I proved this also on the shin of a certain nobleman who had 

a pustule which everything had failed to cure, and yet was cured 

with this one. For the pustule dried up and ceased to smell the 

first time it was applied ; all the bad symptoms disappeared and 

within a month he was completely cured, etc. 

It happened that a certain man had a botch in the bend of the 

knee as is here depicted (Plate IX, fig. 6, right column) which 

it was difficult to break. I dressed it with a maturing plaister 

and afterwards broke it with a ruptoriumf and squeezed out 

the matter, and then with a wooden tube I filled it up from the 

bottom even to the top with [a mixture of wheaten flour and 

* " The Toad ugly and venomous bears yet a precious jewel in his head." 
But if the Toad was ugly and venomous and its bite was thought to be 
dangerous, it was much used in medicine. The powder of a dried Toad taken 
5ss at a time or more cures almost all incurable dropsies, carrying away the 
water by Urine, the ashes of them burnt is better. A dried Toad steept in 
vinegar and the belly of it laid to a carbuncle draws out the poison : smelt to, 
it stops bleeding at the nose, especially laid to the forehead or behind the ear 
or held in the hand till it is hot, or hung about the neck. The ashes or powder 
do the same laid upon the part that bleeds. Laid to the Veins it cures the 
dropsy : to the Navel fits of the Mother : laid to the soles of the feet it helps 
distempers of the head and heart and cools the heat of fevers. The Ashes hung 
about the neck (as an Amulet) cures pissing a bed or the not holding of the 

t Page 35. 

44 Master John Arderne 

clarified honey] and I incised it through the middle of the skin 
into the wound* and put on it a cloth soaked in white of egg. 
In the morning when it was removed I dressed it with a powder 
made as follows : R. green copper vitriol, orpiment and alum 
[and over it charpie\\ and afterwards a plaister made thus : 
R. Juice of smallage ; mugwort danewort and thus with these 
remedies to wit the powder and the plaister he was soon afterwards 
entirely cured, but if you prefer it you can cure it well enough with 
diachylon after it has been incised. 

But it must be noted that in such part as you intend to cut you 
must be careful of that large vein which is called the cephalickf 
and runs through the thigh to the tibia and which lies near the large 
muscle, not to cut it as it lies on the leg, as is here depicted 
(Plate IX, fig. 7, right column). 

And a certain man had a swelling in his leg after scratching in 
consequence of a pruritus with redness ; there was a pustule with 
heat and it exuded drops of water. Many applications had been 
used for a long time without improvement and it was said by some 
to be the malum mortuum &c. At last being seen by a certain 
friar Minor he made him a plaister of sempervivum i.e. rhubarb,|| 
well pounded with the fat of a ram and hog's lard and bran (cooked 
together) and applied warm and it soon brought him back to health. 
The best plaister is 

R. juice of smallage, wormwood, mugwort, nettle, walwort with 
honey and white of egg aa. to which rye meal has been added. 
cloth and to remove it and as often to 

* The scribe has omitted the fact that Arderne wished first to incise the 
swelling and afterwards to use another ruptorium, the patient refused the one 
and tore off the other. 

f Carpina. % i.e. Saphena. 

The malum mortuum must, I think have been gangrene. Arderne, like 
the other practitioners of his day as well as the public generally, had a great 
dread of its occurrence. It was also used in its French form as Mormale for 
Chaucer says of the Cook in the Prologue line 386 " But great harm was it as it 
thought me, That on his schynne a mormal hadde he." In the case of the 
Canon Arderne adopted the treatment still used for callous ulcers : he cleansed it, 
applied firm pressure and dressed it with a stimulating ointment. 

|| " Rabarbe," added in English. 

Surgeon of Newark 45 

cleanse it with a dry] cloth and to dress it again ; and thus doing 

he never felt anything soothe it or do it so much good before. 

And thus he was cured, &c. 

A certain Canon (Plate X, fig. i, right column) once on a time fell 

ill and when he began to get better a great collection of descending 

humours fell on his shin and after some time brownish and broad 

pustules and nodes appeared. And when I saw them I told him 

that it was the malum mortuum, and I made him a cure which has 

the name of Dyuelyn. 

And the cure is this for the malum mortuum : 

First bind up the patient's leg firmly and rather tightly with linen 

rag Then wash the leg well, and whilst it is bandaged, 

with warm water as hot as the patient can bear. After it has 
been bathed let him lie for a natural day for one day and one 
night taking great care that the leg is not exposed to the air or to 
cold. And on the second day remove the rag and cleanse the 
wound or all the wounds if they are numerous and put into each 
wound a small piece of linen moistened with cold water which 
should be changed twice a day, removing the ointment, cleansing 
the wounds and filling them with a piece of wet linen morning and 
evening until it is healthy. Afterwards put some of the ointment 
round the wound upon the healthy skin so that the inside of the 
wounds are never touched by it at any point so that it may 
co-operate with the moistened linen mentioned above. 
This is the ointment : 

R. Copperas, salt of nitre, broom ashes, ashes of a black snail, 
atrament* aa. one part, a little greek green and quicksilver as 
much as any one of the previous ingredients and hog's lard double 
in amount of all the rest put together. Dissolve over a fire and 
then mix them all well together with the lard. And then when 
you have mixed the other powders put in some pitch and the 
ointment will become black. 

With this ointment made in the aforesaid manner I have entirely 
cured large wounds of the shin such as are here mentioned ; but 
smaller wounds with Lanfrank's green ointment. 

; Ink, a sulphate containing powdered galls. 

46 Master John Arderne 

But be it noted that in a severe wound such as is here depicted : 
with the cure by Dyuelyn I purged him pretty often from the 
feast of St. Mark the Evangelist* to the feast of St. Margaret 
the Virgin.f There was dead flesh in the centre of the wound 
of a livid colour and as broad as a penny which could not be 
cured by any of the aforesaid means, but began to re-infect that 
part which was already healing. Then indeed I put on some 
powdered arsenic mixed with black soap upon charpie. After 
two or three applications the edges of the wounds began to fill 
up and became of a livid colour mixed with red. And it so 
happened that where the arsenic touched the wound it acted with 
great energy, but nevertheless did no harm. Afterwards I applied 
meadow saxifrage daily for a fortnight until the dead flesh began 
to separate from the edges but that dead flesh was very thick 
and when I saw this I cut a little off the top with a razor. Then 
I put on some lard and so at last with lard and cutting I wholly 
removed it. When this piece of dead flesh was removed I worked 
away again with the same DYUELYN ointment and linen rag soaked 
in warm water until nearly to the next feast of St. Matthew the 
Apostle and Evangelist! when the wound was no broader than 
a penny and then again it began to break out at the sides and 
increased until it was nearly as large as it had been on St. 
Lawrence's day.> And when I saw this I dressed it four times 
with a powder of litharge mixed with white ointment and I placed 
upon the wound a piece of clean linen as large as the wound and 
moistened with herb Robert|| water. This dressing seemed to me 
to be more useful and better. The edges of the wound healed and 
grew together until they became quite sound, etc. 
It sometimes happens too that a Gutta Fistula (Plate X, fig. 2, 
right column) forms in the fingers of boys and girls often at the 
lower joint^f next the hand and makes sinuses in the skin on one 

* April 25th. f July 2oth. J Sept. 2ist. August 6th. 

|] Herb Robert a geranium was used to cure the Ruprecht's Plage, so named 
from Robert Duke of Normandy for whom the whole school of Salernum wrote 
the Regimen Sanitatis. It is sometimes called Sancti Ruperti herba. 

^f i.e., Metacarpo-phalangeal. 

Surgeon of Newark 47 

side and sometimes on both sides. But when you see sinuses on 
both sides you know that the patient is incurable unless it is entirely 
removed through the finger joint where it joins the hand. But if 
the bone of the hand near the finger* is also affected, it is incurable 
unless it too is eradicated. 

There is not much to be said therefore about the treatment of such 
cases as to their cure. For I have rarely seen any escape death 
when this disease has once become obvious because they soon die 
of a flux either dry or restricted. The digits of the hand or foot 
or the leg or any other limb in which such a fistula forms stinks 
badly. It has a narrow orifice [which, is either white or red and 
when they are stopped the patients become pale\ in the face and they 
get thin and feeble, t The same condition often occurs in the leg, 
knee, foot and ankle. I have cured it in the shin and foot and at 
the ankle (Plate XI, fig. i, right column) but in the ankle it broke 
out again after a time and even sometimes at the knee. I once 
cured a gutta fistula in the shin and over the ankle and foot with 
a plaister of SanguiboetesJ and a powder which was made thus : 
R. Orpiment, sulphur, quicklime and black soap aa. powdered 
together and applied twice a day round the wound. I also rubbed 
in common oil or white ointment until the patient was restored to 
perfect health as has been told. I also gave him drink of Antioch 
and he quickly recovered his health. 

* i.e., Metacarpal. 

t This shows that tuberculous disease of the bones usually ended in general 
tuberculosis or in death from septic absorption as was frequently the case in 
tuberculous disease of the hip until our own days. 

+ Arderne nowhere gives the formula for this preparation. 

Drink of Antioch was made according to the following receipt : 

Take one handful of daisy and one handful of bugle and one handful of 
fennel and half an handful of hemp and as much of oats, as much of tansy, as 
much of herb Robert, as much of madder, as much of comfrey, four branches 
of orpine, six crops of briar, six crops of red nettle. Seethe these herbs in one 
gallon of white wine to a pottle and afterwards add an equal quantity of clarified 
honey. Mix them together and steam it a little. It was used for the wounded 
and bruised in doses of three spoonfuls in six spoonfuls of water. " And look 
that the sick man be well kept from gouty meats and drinks and from women." 
The drink was clearly intended for knights and men of high degree. 

48 Master John Arderne 

To relieve a rankle.* 

R. Cummin well powdered with breadcrumb, chestnut, honey and 
white wine. Boil them together to dryness and then add pig's 
blood q.s. Boil again and apply to the rankle on stupes or pieces 
of linen. 

For a hot aposteme or a hot swelling. 

R. The Yolks of hard-boiled eggs, virgin wax, purslane, smal- 
lage i-Sss. Dissolve them all in oil of roses over a slow fire after 
they have been well pounded together. A plaister is then made 
and applied and this is useful for an inflamed gout and it soothes 
a red swelling of the legs. 

R. Oatmeal gruel warmed in vinegar with \mutton\ suet and applied. 
It relieves greatly. 

Against tearing of the nerves and immeasurable pain. 
Such a plaister as this may be used : 

R. Refined honey half a pound ; naval pitch aa. of braised beans 
and cummin aa. 5iii. Prepare it thus : Dissolve the pitch with the 
honey over a slow fire and when they are thoroughly dissolved add 
the rest in powder [stirring and kneading them well together} and 
make a plaister. 

Against an indurated swelling from cold cause. 
R, Mallows and marshmallows, parsley, fenugrek, violets, fresh 
butter, white wax and pig's blood. Make a plaister for the swelling 
whether from a blow or from gout. First anoint the part with warm 
refined honey and afterwards sprinkle over it the aforesaid powder 
of myrtle berries, pennyroyal and cinnamon. Bandage &c. It 
should be noted that these kinds of remedies are called Sinapisms. 
A plaister which is strongly maturative to relieve an inflam- 

Take linseed and pound it well in a mortar into a powder, then 
cook it to dryness and afterwards add marshmallow root, i.e. 
holyhok.f Remove the hard core and boil the rest thoroughly 

* A RANKLE was a festering sore. The word is only used figuratively now 
and as a verb. 

t Contemporary gloss in English. 

Surgeon of Newark 49 

by itself; then boil as many eggs as are necessary to make the 
quantity required. Take their yolks separately and rub them all 
together. Afterwards take hog's lard and rub it thoroughly with 
all the other constituents until a sort of paste is made. When this 
is done and applied lightly it will for certain be found of wonderful 
virtue and strongly healing. 

For a swelling of the arm after bloodletting. (Plate XI, fig. 2, 
right column.) 

Seethe Althea in water until the water becomes very viscous then 
in the strained water seethe oats for a long time until they are 
reduced to a thick poultice. Bind up the arm with this applied on 
a piece of linen. When the arm is swelled after bloodletting be 
careful not to apply anything cold but seethe hot wheaten bread- 
crumb just out of the oven in styptic wine to make a sort of paste. 
When it is cool put it round the swelling. Very cold applications 
may also be applied to prevent the passage of blood and humours 
to the damaged part. 

If the swelling become windy and many of the humours assemble 
there remedies which generate matter should be applied, such as 
plaister of mallowflowers and also wormwood infused in boiled 
water and afterwards prepared with hog's lard. This causes the 
discharge and the materies morbi to evaporate through the pores. 
It assuredly comforts the place and is most certainly serviceable in 
all botches if you can get it. 

Against a swelling after letting blood. Let all the surrounding 
part be well anointed with warm oil of roses and wrapped up 
in a piece of linen soaked in hot white wine. 
Against pain from puncture of a nerve [in the arm after blood 
letting] or in any other limb from other punctures. 
Make a plaister of honey and roots of danewort, althea, bryony 
or lily. 

For all pain and in any place apply to the swollen arm after 
bloodletting : 

The tops of leeks i.e. the heads and cook them in tow or in 
ashes and afterwards pound them and then let them be roasted 
by themselves in a pan and applied hot. 

50 Master John Arderne 

Let a \ripening plaister\ be made of wheaten flour with roots of lily, 
honey and oil or butter or pig's blood prepared altogether on the 
fire and applied hot. It ripens (inflammation) everywhere and if 
you cannot get all these roots take impromptu whichever you 
can for you may do well with one of them even if you cannot 
have them all. 

Lana succida soaked in oil of rue and applied to the swelling 
of the nerve hurt during bloodletting or by any other puncture 
in any limb of the body is certainly excellent as a remedy. 

(Plate V, fig. i, centre column.) 

This is the first kind of Labour (Plate V, fig. 2, centre column). It is the 

best and most natural of all kinds especially as when labour begins there 

is nothing to be afraid of unless the midwife should pull down the hand. 

The midwife, &c. 

The second kind of labour (Plate V, fig. 3, centre column) is equally good 

when it occurs. The midwife should be careful when she reaches the 

hand to grasp it and so deliver it, &c. 

The third kind (Plate V, fig. 4) is when the child lies transversely. What 

is to be done ? 

The midwife, introducing her hand, should adjust it and if she finds the 

head nearest she should grasp it or draw down the feet. 

The fourth kind (Plate VI, fig. i, centre column) is when she finds both 

hands protruding. What should the midwife do then ? 

Catching hold of the two arms with her hands she should push him back 

adjusted with her hands, as I have said above, and seizing his head should 

pull it out gradually and gently. If the child has a [very small] head and 

if both arms present the midwife, having first introduced her hand, ought 

to adjust the head at the mouth of the womb, and having grasped the 

child's hands she should endeavour to prevent the head from blocking the 

vulvar orifice. But the whole body of the child is born easily when the 

hands present first. 

The fifth birth (Plate VI, fig. 2, centre column). What should be clone 

when a hand protrudes ? 

The midwife is usually instructed never to take hold of it nor to pull upon 

it more than twice so long as the head is unborn lest the mouth of the womb 

become blocked. For it is in this very attempt that she is able to dislocate 

the child's hand so that it escapes from the uterus. This is a serious 

mistake on the part of the midwife. You would do better, therefore, if, 

fixing your fingers in this way you press him back and so arrange him in 

Surgeon of Newark 51 

the pelvic cavity that his hands lie along his sides as they are born and 
seizing the head attempt to draw it out.* 

The sixth birth (Plate VI, fig. 3, centre column). What should be done if 
the child descending by its feet in any part of the genital canal [vulva] the 
rest inclines towards the body ? t 

As I have said before, the midwife should introduce her hand and turn it. 
The seventh birth. (Plate VI, fig. 4, centre column.) What should the 
midwife do if one foot prolapses and is even seen. 

The midwife should never lay hold of it and try to extract it lest the rest 
of the body of the child should be shut up in the womb. But rather with 
the finger inserted into the child's groin let her press it upwards and intro- 
ducing her hand seize the other foot and grasping both feet attempt to 
deliver them. * t 

The eighth birth. (Plate VI, fig. 5, centre column.) J But what should 
she do when he puts out both feet ? 

The midwife having grasped the groins with both hands bends them up- 
wards and having arranged them, as I have said, delivers them. 
The ninth birth. (Plate VII, fig. 2, centre column.) What should we do 
if, when the feet are widely separated, the soles are fixed within the genital 
canal [vulva] ? 

The midwife introducing her hand brings them together and arranges them 
at the mouth of the womb. 

The tenth birth (Plate VII, fig. 3, centre column) is when he sits on his 
nates or haunches. 

The midwife introduces her hand, seizes and pushes the child backwards, 
and having corrected the position of the hands and feet delivers it. If 
there is more than one, if there are two or three or four together at the 
mouth she compresses them, as I have said above, pushing them all back 
into the vaginal cavity and so causing them to be born one at a time. The 
midwife should do this gently and without roughness. She should, there- 
fore, frequently pour over the parts themselves warm oil or juice of 

* The whole passage is so corrupt that it makes nonsense as it stands. The 
MS. reads : " Quintus partus. Quociens manum emittit quid faciendum est ? 
Principaliter jubetur ut nunquam eum teneat obstetrix ; nee abducat plus. ii. 
relicto intus capite orificium matricis obturatur. Nam est in ipso conatu 
exarticulare infantis poterit manum aperire ut eum de utero evadat. Culpa 
obstetricis insolens efficiatur. Melius ergo facis & si hujusmodi infixis digitis 
eum retrorsum removeat & intus capacitatem vulve positum ita componat ut 
manus ejus ejectis lateribus jungat & apprehenso capite foras conari incipiat." 
The meaning is sufficiently clear and is to the effect than when a hand protrudes 
the midwife must not pull upon it, for if she does it may be dislocated or even 
torn off and the result will be seen as soon as the child is born. 

t This passage is also corrupt. 

I By an error of the photographer this part of the manuscript is duplicated 
so that this figure also appears as fig. i in the centre column of Plate VII. 

fenugrek, or boiled linseed and mallows. For with such care both the 
birth of the children is facilitated so that they are born safely and she who 
bears them is saved from trouble and shock. For we have known very 
many children born after a very difficult labour and we have seen them live. 
The eleventh birth (there is no drawing of this presentation) is the 
same as, &c. 

The twelfth birth. (Plate VII, fig. 4, centre column.) What should we 
do when the child is doubled up ? 

A boy may be doubled up within the vulva in two ways. If we find his 
little bottom at the mouth of the vulva let the doubling up be made from 
the lower part of his body ; when the hands and soles of the feet are found 
doubled up within the mouth of the womb let it be from the upper parts. 
There is a second form of doubling up and the midwife can correct it so 
that with the soles of the feet pushed upwards she thus grasps the head 
and so delivers the child. 

The thirteenth birth. (Plate VIII, figures in the centre column.) If it lies 
transversely what should be done ? 

[If the belly is foremost] or if it lies on its back the midwife gently intro- 
duces her hand and turns it on the side. If there is room enough for the 
midwife to introduce her hand she can easily arrange the position according 
to the ideal plan and grasp any part which is nearest or suitable and draw 
it to the mouth (of the uterus). But she seeks principally the child's head, 
grasps it and delivers it. We say that she does better when the head is 
found, but if the feet are the nearer let her grasp and deliver them. And if 
there are two or more the operation should be performed according to 
the afore-mentioned rules. 

MS. ends. 


To face p. 52 



Abbot's diarrhodon, 26 

Absinthe, 7, n, 23, 24 

Acorus, 8 

Ador, 33 

Agaric, 33 

Agrippa ointment, 9 

Alexander of Tralles, 29 

Alexandrine sugar, 19 

Alin, Dr. Edward, ix 

Alleyne, Dr. James, 10 note, 30 note 

Almansor, 2 

Aloes, 4, 15, 1 6, 1 8 

Alum water, preparation of, 39 

Anatomical drawings, Alexandrine, x 
,, de Mondeville's, ix 

,, description of, ix 

Anise, 4, 17 

Antioch, drink of, 47 

Anus, itching of, a cure for, 29 
piles at, 41 

Aposteme, to relieve an, 48 

Appetite, 16, 17 

Aqua Benedicta, 26 

Arderne (John), account of. Preface, i 
cases treated by, 8, 9, 32, 34, 
36,39,40,41,43,45, 47 

Arm, swollen after bloodletting, treat- 
ment of, 49 

Arthritic inflammation, treatment of, 34 

Asafcetida, n 

Ascites, a drink for, 26 

Asthmatic, treatment of the, 13 

Aurea Alexandrina, 23 

Auricular finger, 6 

Avicenna, 2, 17 

Balaustines, 13, 25, 27, 29 
Basilicon plaister, composition of, 23 
Bean flour, n, 25 
Behen album, 16 
Belching, cure for, 17 
Bellyache caused by worms, 19 
Benedicta laxativa, composition of, 20, 
23 note 

Betony, 3 

Birth figures, 50 

Bites, treatment of, 42, 43 

Bleareye, treatment of, 5 

Bleeding, treatment of accidents after, 


Blessed laxative, composition of, 20, 23 
Blood in urine, 27, 28 

vomiting of, 13 
Blood-letting, 2, 7, 10, u, 14, 25, 27, 

29, 33. 37. 49 

,, accidents following, 49 
Bole armoric, 13, 21, 25, 36 
Bone, necrosis of, 39 

therapeutic use of, 6 
Borage, 3, 6, 15, 16, 26 
Botch, 38 

in the anus, 38 

ham, 43 

,, ,, throat, 10 
Boulimia, treatment of, 17 
Box shavings, i 
Breathing, difficulty in, 14 
Broom flowers, i 
Butter, 6 

Cabbage juice, 3 

Camomile, 4, 9, 14 

Cancer, origin of, 38 

Capon's fat, 6, 7 

Caraway, 16 

Carbuncle, 38 

Cardamoms, 4, 17 

Carpobalsam, 31 

Castoreum 9, 21 

Castration, 37 

Cathartic, composition of the imperial, 

7, 26 

Charms, 6, 32 
Chaudepisse, 22 note, 28 
Chekynmete, its botanical name, 25 
Chest, dryness of the, 12 
Chicken panade, 22 
Cinnamon, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 48 



Clyster, formula for, 35, 38 
Cold cough, treatment of, 12 

,, rheum, treatment of, n 

seeds, 13, 23, 24, 25 
Colic, treatment of, 22 
Colier, John le, the case of, 40 
Colocynth, 33 

Consolidating juices, the four, 30 
Constipation, causes and treatment of, 


Consumptive, treatment of the, 13-18 
Coral, red, 25 
Corn flour, 21 

Cough, treatment of, u, 12 
Cramp, a charm for, 32 

physiology of, 32 
Cubebs, 3, 14, 18 
Cummin, 10, 48 

Dactylitis, treatment of, 46, 47 

Damsons, 4 

Dates, 10, 14, 16 

Deafness, treatment of, 6 

Depilatory, prescription for a, i 

Diacalamintum, 17 

Diachylon plaister, 40 

Diacitoniton, 26 

Diacydium, 17, 26 

Diaflosm plaister, 41 

Diagalangal, 17, 18 

Diagrydium, composition of, 23 note 

Diamargariton, 16 

Diaprassium, 17 

Diaprunum, 22, 24, 25, 27 

Diarrhodon, composition of, 26 

of the Abbot, 17 

,, of Julius, 15 

Diarrhoea, treatment of, 20 
Diasene, 17 

Diet drink, formula for, 30 
Dodder of thyme, 4 
Dog bite, treatment of, 42 
Dragon's blood, 13, 21, 25, 36 
Drink habit, cure for the, 17 
Dropsy, against, 25, 26 
Drunkenness, a prescription to cure, 2 
Dysentery, treatment of, 13, 20 
Dysphagia, treatment of, 16 
Dyspnoea, treatment of, 14 
Dysuria, treatment of, 35 
Dyuelyn ointment, 45 

Ears, diseases of, treatment of, 3, 6, 7 
Earthworms, 6, 26, 35 
Eggs, ants', 6 

Eggs, earthworms', 6, 35 
hens', 5 
new laid, 5 
poached, n 
raw, 39 

white of, i, 5, n 
yolks of, 4, 21, 25, 33, 34, 36, 38, 

44. 48, 49 
Elder flowers, 25 
Elecampane, 14 
Enema, 35, 38 
Epilepsy, charm against, 6 
,, treatment of, 3, 6 
Erysipelas, 37 
Euphorbium, 8 
Eyes, blows on, 5 

heaviness of, 4 

nebula of, 5 

,, rheum of, 31 

,, treatment for bleared, 5 

watering, 5 

Fasting spittle, 35 
Fennel, 16, 23, 24, 26 
Fenugrek, n, 13, 14, 21 
Festering sore, a plaister for, 48 
Fever, treatment of, 14, 15 
Figs, 10, u, 14, 16, 24, 28 
Fistula in ano, treatment of, 40 

origin of, 38 
Flatulence, to prevent, 18 
Fleum, treatment of the salt, 7 
Frank, Dr. Mortimer, ix 
Frenzy, a prescription for the cure of, 

Fumitory, syrup of, 7 

Galangal, 3, 16 

Galls, 3, 21 

Gargle, for headache, 3 

Gaunt, John of, xi, 36, note 

Ginger, 3 

Glands, matted, treatment of, 10 

Goats' dung, 10 ; spleen, 21 ; whey 25, 


Gold, slime of, 16 
Gonorrhoea, the treatment of, 28 
Gonorrhoea! inflammation, treatment 

of, 22 

Gordon, Bernard, i, note 
Gout, treatment of, 7, 34, 35, 48 
Greek powder, formula for, 42 
Gum arabic, 10, u, 15 

tragacanth, 10, n, 15, 17 
Gutta fistula, treatment of, 46 



Haematuria, 27, 28 
Haemoptysis, treatment of, 13 
Hair, a depilatory for the, i 

,, a dye for the, i 
Hare, powdered, as a styptic, 33 
Headache, cures for, 2, 3, 31 
Health drink, 30 

rules for maintaining, 18 
Heart, affections of, 16 

palpitation of, 16 
Hectic, treatment of the, 13 
Henry IV, prolapse of the rectum, xi, 

22, 29 note 
Herb, Robert, 46 
Hermodactyl, 2, 16, 33 
Hernia, treatment of, 30 
Herpes, 37 

Hiccough, a cure for, 18 
Hiera cerevisia acuta, 23 

,, logadion, 8 

,, picra, 4, 18, 20, 23 note, 27 

,, saracenica, 24 
Hoarseness, treatment of, n 
Honey, 4, 7, 9, 14, 16, 20, 29, 37, 39, 48 
Honeysuckle, 43 
Horehound, n, 12 
Horse fat, 34 

Hot seeds, the four, 13, 22 
Humours, to cleanse gross, 14 
Hydromel, preparation of, 28 
Hypnotic, prescription for a, 2 
Hypoquistidis, 13 
Hyssop, 3,9, n, 12, 13, 14 

Iliaca passio, treatment of, 22 
Imperial cathartic, composition of, 7, 


Incense, 25 

Incontinence of urine, treatment of, 28 
Inflammation, treatment of, 48, 49 

,, arthritic, 34 

Ingerslev, Dr. E., ix 
Ivy, ground, 4, 6, 9, 10, n, 16 

Jaundice, a drink for, 26 

Kidneys, pain and inflammation of the, 

Knee, treatment for a botch of the, 43 

Labour, catechism for midwives, 50, 51 
Lana succida, preparation of, 9 
,, use of, 24, 38, 50 
Lanfrank, 5 

Lanfrank's green ointment, 45 

Lapis haematites, 25 

Larch, resin of, 3 

Leg, cure of an ulcerated, 39, 44, 45 

Leprosy, prescription for incipient, 6 

Lettuce, juice of, 3, 4 

Licium, preparation of, 7, 39, 40 

Lientery, treatment of, 20 

Lime, unslaked, i, 35 

Linseed, n 

Liquorice, 6, 12, 15 

,, powder, 3 
Liver, 23, 24, 25 

,, bad complexion of the, 22 

causing dysentery, 20 

,, deficient action of, 17 
Lovage, IT 
Lozenges, 8, 9, 12, 23 

Madness, 31 

Maidenhair, n, 12, 13 

Malum mortuum, cases of, 44, 45 

Manuscript, traditional history of this 

Stockholm, xi 
Marjoram, i, 4 
Marmalades, 5, 13 
Marshmallow, 25 
Mastiche, 25 

Mellicrat, its composition, 20 
Midwives, catechism for, 50, 51 
Milk, goat's, 25, 27 

,i pig's, 25 

woman's, 5, 28 
Musk nut, 1 8 
Mustard, 3, 9 
Myrobalanes, 20, 27 
Myrrh, n, ai 

Narbonne plaister, formula for, 42 
Naval pitch, 48 

Nebula in the eye, to destroy a, 5 
Nerve, puncture of, 7, 49 

tearing of, 48 
Nutmegs, 8 

Oatmeal, 25 

Orach, n 

Origanum, 3, 9, n, 23 

Orpiment, i, 42, 43, 47 

Orris root, 10 

Oxgall, 7 

Oxycrate, composition of, 7 

Oxymel, 18 

,, diuretic, 22 


Palpitation, treatment of, 15 
Paraphimosis, to reduce a, 36 
Passio iliaca, treatment of, 22 

splenica, ,, 26 
Pearls, 6, 16, 21 
Pellitory root, 3, 8, 9, 16 
Penis, treatment of inflammation of, 36 
Peony, juice of, 6, 16 
Pepper, black, 3, 8, 9 
Phillipa, Queen of Norway, Sweden 

and Denmark, xi 
Phillipa, Book of Hours belonging to, 


Phlebotomy. See Blood-letting 
Phlegm, treatment of, 12 
Phthisis with fever, treatment of, 12 
,, without fever, ,, 13 
Pig's fat, 34 

milk, 25 
Pigeon's dung, 27 

Piles, for bleeding and inflamed, 33, 41 
Pimples, treatment of, 7 
Pine needles, 7 
Plantain, 25 

Pleurisy, physiology of, 15 
signs of, 15 
treatment of, 14, 15 
Pleuro-pneumonia, treatment of, 15 
Poppy, 4, 12 
Pork essence, 22 
Prayer, a form of, 30 
Pregnancy, 50 

Prolapse of the rectum, 22, 29 
Pruritus ani, 29 
Pruritus of anus, 29 
Psidium, 25 

Psilothrix, prescription for a, i 
Psyllium, 13 
Pulvis grecus, 41 
Pulvis sine pare, 41 
Pustule, cure of, 43 
Pyrus, 33 

Queen Phillipa, xi 
Quicklime, 35 
Quicksilver, 7 
Quinces, 4, 12, 13, 25 
Quinsy, cures for, 9 

,, signs of death in, 10 

Raisins, marmalade of, 13 
Rankle, to relieve a, 48 
Read, John, of Gloucester, viii 
Realgar, 40 
Rectum, prolapse of the, 22, 29 

Renal calculus, 27 

Retching, treatment of, 18 

Rheum, treatment of the cold, n 

Rhubarb, 22, 23, 25, 44 

Rocksalt, 18. 

Roses, oil of, 4 

Rue, juice of, 8, 16, 43, 50 

Ruptorium, formula for making a, 35, 43 

Rupture, treatment of, 30 

Saffron, 5 

Sage leaves, 3 

Sal ammoniac, 9 

Salt fleum, treatment of, 7 

Salus populi ointment, 41 

Sandal, i, 15, 17, 23 

Saracen's consound, 24 

Sarcocolla, 10 

Saunders, red, 4, 21, 23, 24 

,, white, 4 

Sciatica, treatment of, 33, 34 
Scorpion, treatment of stings of, 43 
Scrope, Geoffrey, patient cured in the 

house of, xii 

Scrotum, affections of, 37 
Seeds, the four cold, 13, 23, 24, 25 

hot, 13, 22 
Senna, 14 
Serapion, 2 
Seripula, 14 
Siligo, 33 
Sinapisms, 48 
Sleep, prescription to awaken from, 2 

,, to provoke, i 

Snail, 45 

Soap, black, 35, 40 
Solatrum, 10, 23, 24 
Soothing ointment, formula for a, 38 
Southernwood, 3 
Spasm, a charm against, 32 
Speech, gargle for loss of, 9 
Spittle, fasting, 35 
Splenic passion, treatment of, 26 
Stag's bone, therapeutic use of, 6 
Stavesacre, 3-9 
Stomach, ache of the, 19 
coldness of the, 1 8 
distension of the, 19 
Stone in the bladder, to break a, 28 

kidney, 27 

ii ii urethra, 36 
Storax, 4 
Succory, 4 
Sudhoff, Prof., ix, x 



Sugar Alexandrine, 18 

candy, n 
Sumach, 25 

Swelling, treatment of an indurated, 48 
Syncope, treatment of, 16 

Tamarinds, 18 

Tapsibarbastus, 29, 30 

Tapsimel, 29, 30 note 

Teeth, non-operative removal of, 9 

Terra sigillata, 13, 21 note, 25, 42 

Testicles, affections of the, 37 

Thirst, against, 17, 21 

Thompson, Mr. C. J. S., xi, 21, 23 

Throat, botch of the, 10 

Thyme, 4 

Tibia, necrosis of, 39 

Tinnitus aurium, 3, 6 

Tisane, a, for phthisis, 13 

Toad, bite of, 43 

virtues of, 43 

Tongue, palsy of the, treatment for, 8 
Toothache, cures for, 9 
Triasantalon, 26 
Trifera saracenica, 25 
Triticum, 33 

Turbith, the virtues of, 2, 14, 33 
Turpith, 18-19 

Tutty, the virtues of, 4 
Tympanites, treatment of, 26 

Ulcers, treatment of, 39, 40, 43 
Urethral calculus, operation for, 36 
Urine, blood in the, 27, 28 

incontinence of, 28 

,, pharmaceutical uses of, 4, 6, 7, 24 

retention of, 35 
Uvula, swelling of the, 10 

Vinegar, i, 8, 10, 29 
Violets, 4, 12, 38 
Vitriol, 39, 44 

,, burnt, 29 
Vesical calculus, 28 
Vomiting blood, treatment for, 13, 19 
Vulva, treatment of inflammation of, 36 

Wine, heavy, 29 

hurtful in nervous disorders, 8 

white, 3, 6, 49 
Worms, to cure, 19, 22, 35 
Wrymouth, treatment of, 7 

Yppie minor aquatica, 25 
Yve, uses of, 6, 34 

Zedoary seeds, 35 

Recent Bequest, Presentations and Loans to the Wellcome Historical 

Medical Museum. 


By the late Sir Felix Semon, K.C.V.O., M.D. 
Japanese drug seller's sign board. 
Old Japanese medical officer's sword. 


Relics of the late Sir George Buchanan, F.R.S., LL.D. 

presented by Miss Buchanan. 

Pulse glass, dental forceps, glass syringe, etc. 

Relics of the late Dr. Ward Cousins, F.R.C.S. 

presented by Mrs. Ward Cousins. 

Portrait, brass plate, manuscript, instruments, etc. 

Relics of the late Sir Hermann Weber, M.D. 
presented by Dr. F. Parkes Weber. 
Collection of old clinical thermometers. 

Relics of the late Dr. H. M. Morgan, M.R.C.S. 
presented by Mrs. Herbert Morgan. 
Old surgical instruments. 

Relics of the late Dr. Laidlaw Purves, L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S. 

presented by Mrs. Laidlaw Purves. 

Surgical instruments and ophthalmological models and appliances. 

Relics of the late Dr. Robert Ellis Dudgeon. 

presented by Dr. Gerald Dudgeon. 

Portrait, book and the first sphygmograph invented by him. 

Relics of the late Dr. Phineas S. Abraham. 

presented by Mrs. Abraham. 

Portrait, gold medal, brass plate and instruments. 

Relics of the late Dr. Henry Barnes. 
presented by Mrs. Barnes. 
Surgical instruments, etc. 

Bequest, Presentations and Loans 59 

Relics of the late Sir Patrick Manson, G.C.M.G., K.C.M.G., F.R.S., M.D. 

presented by Lady Manson. 

Portrait, microscope and surgical instruments, etc. 

Relics of Dr. Edward Jenner. 

presented by Mrs. Awdry. 

Silver spectacles that belonged to Dr. E. Jenner, and other relics. 

Gold lacquered Japanese inro. 
presented by Arthur A. Haserick, Esq. 

Native case or shield for the arm used by the Dyaks. 
presented by Dr. Charles Hose. 

Old hypodermic syringe, 
presented by Dr. C. Jacomb Hood. 

Old clinical thermometer, 
presented by J. D. Malcolm, Esq. 

Collection of Red Cross relics of the Franco-Prussian War, 1870, badges, etc. 
presented by Dame Genevieve Ward. 

Red Cross flag of the hospital ship " Gloucester Castle." 
presented by Mrs. Back. 

Bronze tally of admission to the Botanical Gardens, Amsterdam, 1771. 
Replica of medal of Dr. Hermann Boerhaave. Wax impression of the seal 
of the Medical Academy of Leyden, 1670, etc. 
presented by Professor van Leersum, Amsterdam. 

Glass breast reliever XVI Ith century. 

presented by R. T. Gunther, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., Oxford. 

Original specimens of alkaloids discovered by Pelletier and Caventou, 1820. 
presented by J. D. Marshall, Esq. 

Autograph letter of Sir Humphry Davy, Bart., F.R.S. 
presented by Sir William" Tilden, F.R.S. 

Engraved portraits of Dr. William Heberden and Sir William Watson, 
Bart, M.D., F.R.S. 

presented by Sir Humphry D. Rolleston, M.D., President of the Royal 
College of Physicians. 

A Peruvian charm with two witch dolls, 
presented by Dr. E. Escomel, Arequipa, Peru. 

Prescription written for Arthur Wellesley, afterwards Duke of Wellington. 


presented by the Rev. F. Fielding-Ould. 

60 Bequest, Presentations and Loans 

Medicine men's pouches from Ankole, crocodile's egg and other ethno- 
logical objects. (Mackie Ethnological Expedition, Central Africa.) 
presented by the Rev. John Roscoe, M.A. 


Collection of old chemical apparatus used by Dr. Daubeny in Oxford. 
The President and Council of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Model of a Dressing Station on Vimy Ridge. 
Lieut.-Colonel F. Brereton, R.A.M.C. 

Collection of medals of Andreas Vesalius. 
M. H. Spielmann, Esq. 

Collection of Hispano-Moresque drug jars. 
F. W. Mark, Esq. 

JOHN BALE, SONS & DANIELSSON, Ltd., 83-91, Gt. Titchfield St., London, W. i. 











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